A unique 30-residue cationic peptide oxyopinin 4a (Oxt 4a) was identified
in the venom of the lynx spider Oxyopes takobius(Oxyopidae). Oxt 4a con-tains a single N-terminally located disulfide bond, Cys4–Cys10, and is
structurally different from any spider toxin studied so far.
Tools shape how we think; when the only tool you have is an axe, everything resembles a
tree or a log. The rapid advances in instrumentation in the last decade, which allow us to
measure and manipulate individual molecules and structures on the nanoscale, have caused
a paradigm shift in the way we view molecular behavior and surfaces. The microscopic details
underlying interfacial phenomena have customarily been inferred from in situ measurements
of macroscopic quantities. Now we can see and “finger” physical and chemical
processes at interfaces.
The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor
subunit 1 (TRPV1) is amolecular integrator of physical and
chemical stimuli in the peripheral nociceptor terminals.
TRPV1 is an ionotropic channel that plays a critical role in
both thermal nociception and inflammatoryhyperalgesia.
Structure–function relationships are providing fundamental
insights of the modular architecture of this neuronal recep-tor.
Next, a few words about our strategy. It is well recognized now that one has to go beyond
the Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, both from the experimental viewpoint (eg.,because of
Dark Energy) and from the theoretical viewpoint (eg., because of the UV incompleteness
of quantized Einstein gravity, and the need of its uniﬁcation with the Standard Model of
In our approach, the origin of inﬂation is purely geometrical, ie. is closely related to
space-time and gravity.
We believe that it is interesting to study the system and software architecture of
environments which integrate the evolving ideas of computational grids, distributed objects,
web services, peer-to-peer networks and message oriented middleware. Such peer-to-peer (P2P)
Grids should seamlessly integrate users to themselves and to resources which are also linked
to each other. We can abstract such environments as a distributed system of “clients” which
consist either of “users” or “resources” or proxies thereto.
In gravity injection, small volumes of reagents are gravity-fed into injection
well(s) over a longer application period. The distribution and dissipation of the
reagents in the saturated zone is largely controlled by the site hydrogeologic
conditions. The gravity injection approach may reduce some of risks associated
with chemical oxidation technologies. Additionally, given its prolonged
application period, the oxidants may be able to penetrate into more of the lower
permeability soils to address contaminants in these areas.
Volume 4 delves into our interconnected, networked society. The Internet
is explored in detail, including its history, applications, and backbone. Molecular
computing and artificial life are discussed, as are mobile computing
and encryption technology. The reader will find articles on electronic banking,
books, commerce, publishing, as well as information access and overload.
Ethical matters pertaining to the electronic universe are also addressed.
Volume 4 extends our aesthetic interest with articles on photography
and the use of computers in art.
A seminal idea proposed in The Intimate Enemy
which has subsequently come rather to define Nandy's
(frequently mis-represented) public political stance
concerns the disjunctions imposed by colonialism which
have returned to haunt contemporary India. The pen-
etration of the West has created a class of mimic men,
"modernists, whose attempts to identify with the colo-
nial aggressors has produced...pathetic copies
Nanoelectronics is a rapidly expanding field with researchers exploring a very
large number of innovative techniques for constructing devices intended to
implement high-speed logic or high-density memory. Less common, however,
is work intended to examine how to utilize such devices in the construction of a
complete computer system. As devices become smaller, it becomes possible to
construct ever more complex systems but to do so means that new and challenging
problems must be addressed.
Different types of mutation can vary in size, from structural variants to single base-pair substitutions, but what they all have in common is that their nature, size and location are often determined either by specific characteristics of the local DNA sequence environment or by higher order features of the genomic architecture. The genomes of higher organisms are now known to contain "pervasive architectural flaws" in that certain DNA sequences are inherently mutation prone by virtue of their base composition, sequence repetitivity and/or epigenetic modification....
In describing her art, Louise Nevelson has written: “I do not belong
to any movement. As my work is related to the present time, it is
bound to be related to that of others, consciously or not....” Her art
may be more closely related to her collections of African art,
American farm tools, architectural elements, and diverse other
fragments of the past and her attraction to the art and architecture of
pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America.
As grounds for a systematic account of the arts, Herder’s approach seems
problematic: as for Hegel, who later similarly attempts to use different means of sensible
representation (or media) as a means systematically to differentiate the arts, both
literature and architecture cause difficulties for Herder, as neither appears to be directed
towards a single sense. (And this is only to mention two other very central, recognized
arts in the (eighteenth century) “system of the arts.”) I shall not, however, be concerned
with these overarching systematic concerns, however.
c-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT; EC 22.214.171.124), an enzyme found in organ-isms from bacteria to mammals and plants, plays a central role in glutathi-one metabolism. Structural studies of GGTs from Escherichia coliand
Helicobacter pylori have revealed detailed molecular mechanisms of
catalysis and maturation.
Growth factors are a group of proteins that regulate a wide variety of cel-lular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, adhesion,
and apoptosis of target cells. They play crucial roles in the formation and
maintenance of tissue architecture in embryonic development and adult
Let’s see what the dinner party will involve? (See illustration of work
breakdown structure) It is a lot more complicated than one would think.
Major tasks include setting up and running the dinner, entertainment, and
silent auction, finding a dinner speaker and clean up after the dinner is over.
Beneath these major tasks are subtasks broken into 16 discrete categories.
Each of the subtasks will break down into repeated or “one-off” steps. The
complete list of steps with milestones runs to 75 entries. (See illustration of
Flowering plants now dominate the terrestrial ecosystems of the planet, and there are
good reasons for supposing that the flower itself has been a major contributing factor
to the spread of the Angiosperms. Although the Angiosperm flower is based on four
whorls of organs – petals, sepal, stamens and carpels – the 300 000 odd species exhibit
a huge array of different floral morphologies. Consider, e.g., the humble periwinkle
flower and contrast it with the complex passion flower.
Human Disc large (DLG1) has been demonstrated to be involved in the
control of cell polarity and maintenance of tissue architecture, and is fre-quently lost in human tumours. However, the mechanisms controlling
DLG1 expression are poorly understood.
Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by
bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally
composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1–11 and VirD4). This repre-sents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases.
Iron overload in the liver may occur in clinical conditions such as hemo-chromatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and may lead to the deterior-ation of the normal liver architecture by mechanisms not well understood.
Although a relationship between the expression of ICAM-1, and classical
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, and iron over-load has been reported, no relationship has been identified between iron
overload and the expression of unconventional MHC class I molecules....
We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’
basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical
and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an
informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral
infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology
to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations,
epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so
forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable
as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of