Molecular chaperones

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  • A novel class of molecular chaperones co-ordinates the assembly and targeting of complex metalloproteins by binding to an amino-terminal peptide of the cognate substrate. We have previously shown that the NarJ chaperone interacts with the N-terminus of the NarG subunit coming from the nitrate reductase complex, NarGHI.

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  • The propagation of yeast prion phenotypes is highly dependent on molecu-lar chaperones. We previously demonstrated that the molecular chaperone Ssa1p sequesters Ure2p in high molecular weight, assembly incompetent oligomeric species. We also determined the affinity of Ssa1p for Ure2p, and its globular domain.

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  • a-Crystallin, a molecular chaperone and lens structural protein protects soluble enzymes against heat-induced aggregation and inactivation by a variety of molecules. In this study we investigated the chaperone function ofa-crys-tallininamorephysiological systeminwhicha-crystallinwas incorporated into red cell ghosts. Its ability to protect the intrinsic membrane protein Na/K-ATPase from external stresses was studied. Red cell ghosts were created by lysing the red cells and removing cytoplasmic contents by size-exclusion chromatography. ...

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  • Milk evolved as a means of providing for the postnatal needs of the developing mammalian neonate. Any perception that milk is a simple, homogeneous fluid does not adequately acknowledge the remarkable array of complex activities and functionalities of its constituent components.

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  • Understanding the forces that influence natural variation within and among populations has been a major objective of evolutionary biology for decades (Csilléry et al., 2010). It can be problematic, as natural populations may have complex demographic histories: size and range changes over time can lead to bottlenecks, fusions and expansions that leave signatures on the genetic composition of the population (Avise, 2004). Detection and analysis of genetic diversity can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in these natural systems.

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  • Most integral membrane proteins are targeted, inserted and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The sequential and potentially over-lapping events necessary for membrane protein integration take place at sites termed translocons, which comprise a specific set of membrane pro-teins acting in concert with ribosomes and, probably, molecular chaperones to ensure the success of the whole process.

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  • During cell intoxication by diphtheria toxin, endosome acidification trig-gers the translocation of the catalytic (C) domain into the cytoplasm. This event is mediated by the translocation (T) domain of the toxin. Previous work suggested that the T domain acts as a chaperone for the C domain during membrane penetration of the toxin.

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  • ClpB, a member of the expanded superfamily of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+), forms a ring-shaped hexamer and coop-erates with the DnaK chaperone system to reactivate aggregated proteins in an ATP-dependent manner.

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  • Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a mito-chondrial chaperone that plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial func-tion and regulating cell apoptosis. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a key step in cell death after hypoxia.

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  • Small Hsps (sHsps) and the structurally related eye lens a-crystallins are ubiquitous stress proteins that exhibit ATP-independent molecular chaperone activity. We studied the chaperone activity of dodecameric wheatTaHsp16.9C-I, a class I cytosolic sHsp from plants and the only eukaryotic sHsp for which a high resolution structure is available, along with the related wheat proteinTaHsp17.8C-II, which represents the evolutionarily distinct class II plant cytosolic sHsps. Despite the available structural information on TaHsp16.

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  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) function as molecular chaperones, pre-venting stress induced aggregation of partially denatured proteins and pro-moting their return to native conformations when favorable conditions pertain. Sequence similarity between sHSPs resides predominately in an internal stretch of residues termed the a-crystallin domain, a region usually flanked by two extensions.

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  • The Hsp90 molecular chaperone catalyses the final activa-tion step of many of themost important regulatory proteins of eukaryotic cells. The antibiotics geldanamycin and rad-icicol act as highly selective inhibitors of in vivo Hsp90 function through their ability to bindwithin the ADP/ATP binding pocket of the chaperone. Drugs based on these compounds are now being developed as anticancer agents, their administration having the potential to inactivate sim-ultaneously several of the targets critical for counteracting multistep carcinogenesis. ...

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  • Misfolded proteins, aggregates, and inclusion bodies are hall-marks of the cytopathology of neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington’s disease, Amyotropic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Prion diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease. The appearance of proteins with altered folded states is regula-ted by the protein folding quality control machinery and age-dependent. We have identified an unexpected molecular link between metabolic state, accumulation of damaged proteins, the heat-shock response and chaperones, and longevity....

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  • These research teams study for example the impact and mechanisms of greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollutant on climate, ozone depletion and carbon sinks (oceans and inland waters, forests and soil). They do research to understand the mechanisms and assess the impact of global change on the water cycle, water quality and availability, as well as soil functions and quality to provide the bases for management tools for sustainable water systems. Biodiversity and ecosystems are analysed to understand and minimise the negative impacts of human activities.

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  • When planning how to reduce the threat of global warming and how to adapt to it, a very important piece of information is how intense the change will be. That implies estimating the trends of future concentrations of greenhouse gasses, and the potential future changes in temperature, precipitation, storm events and other climatic variables. These predictions are important not only to estimate the magnitude of the changes, but also to determine the uncertainty surrounding them.

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  • We present measures of board structure for the restating and control samples in panel B of Table 5. The two groups of firms have similar board structures. The median board size for restating (control) firms is 7 (8) members. The median proportion of independent directors (PID) is about 71 percent in each sample. About 5 percent of the independent directors hold 5 percent or larger blocks of equity (PID5) in both groups. One striking difference between the two groups is in the incidence of an independent director with financial expertise (IDFE).

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  • Messaging systems based on queuing include products such as Microsoft’s MSMQ [28]and IBM’s MQSeries [29]. The queuing model with their store-and-forward mechanisms come into play where the sender of the message expects someone to handle the message while imposing asynchronous communication and guaranteed delivery constraints. A widely used standard in messaging is the Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI) [21]. MPI is designed for high performance on both massively parallel machines and workstation clusters.

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  • In gravity injection, small volumes of reagents are gravity-fed into injection well(s) over a longer application period. The distribution and dissipation of the reagents in the saturated zone is largely controlled by the site hydrogeologic conditions. The gravity injection approach may reduce some of risks associated with chemical oxidation technologies. Additionally, given its prolonged application period, the oxidants may be able to penetrate into more of the lower permeability soils to address contaminants in these areas.

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  • The world economy consists of two countries, denominated home and foreign. Each country is populated by a continuum of identical households, ¯rms, and a monetary authority. House- holds consume two types of ¯nal goods, a tradable good T and a nontraded good N. The production of nontraded goods requires capital and labor, and the production of tradable consumption goods requires the use of home and foreign traded inputs as well as nontraded goods.

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  • There are potential threats to the sustainability of handwash- ing with soap promotion in Peru, including the upcoming turnover of political and technical officials throughout the country (local officials will change in early 2011 and a new president will be elected later in the year). There is also an ongoing high turnover of teachers and, to a lesser extent, of health staff.

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