By 2020, a better molecular definition of “health” and “ill-health” will have been achieved and early
markers that identify the transition between the two states will have been identified. This will be
delivered by studying cellular and molecular mechanisms of both states and by studying the interplay
between environmental factors to which the population is exposed and their genetic make-up.
The Dictionary also describes the essential features of some 2,000 enzymes and proteins, the reactions they catalyze and the functions they perform. These entries also include filenames to facilitate the location of entries in databases of sequences and definitions of 950 abbreviations and symbols
An applied field of biology that involves the use of
living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering,
technology, medicine and other fields requiring
It is the products and exploitation from other
fundamental sciences.Traditional Biotechnology
Traditional biotechnology refers to a number of ancient ways of
using living organisms to make new products or modify
existing ones. In its broadest definition, traditional
biotechnology can be traced back to human's transition from
hunter-gatherer to farmer.
The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all
students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that
prepare them for a lifetime of success.
The Online Learning Definitions Project is designed to provide states, districts, online programs,
and other organizations with a set of definitions related to online and blended learning in order to
develop policy, practice, and an understanding of and within the field.
Chemical substances (also called pure substances) may well be defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. But, there are exceptions to this definition; a pure substance can also be defined as a form of matter that has both definite composition and distinct properties. The chemical substance index published by CAS also includes several alloys of uncertain composition.
Cell culture is practiced extensively throughout the world today. The techniques
required to allow cells to grow and be maintained outside the body have been developed
throughout the 20th century. In the 50 years since the publication of the first
human cancer cell line, HeLa (1), thousands of cell lines representing most of the
spectrum of human cancer have been derived. These have provided tools to study in
depth the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types
and have helped enormously in our understanding of normal as well as cancer cell
When damage is identified with an index,
it is difficult exactly match the index with the repair of damage. Therefore, the
method is considered difficult to apply them to check the seismic risk based on
definition of the changes in the process of damage and other details due to differences in
To reach this goal, it is first necessary to calculate the design solution reflects the damage and
the collapse of a structure under a uniform standard values for different seismic forces....
Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the
improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical
control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes
that change his raw material into finished product.
Since it has been shown that car-sharing can contribute markedly to reducing the
burden of automobile traffic on the environment, the Swedish National Road
Administration considers it important that the establishment and growth of car-
sharing schemes be enouraged. There is a need of clarifying, however, just what
car-sharing is and what quality requirements should be met by car-sharing
groups in order for public benefits and support to be provided them.
The molecular definition of tumor antigens, costimulatory signals, and the
possibility to genetically engineer tumor cells as well as simple protocols for
efficient isolation and preparation of dendritic cells (DC) renew the interest in
tumor immunotherapy and vaccination, in particular. Engineering of tumor
cells with the gene of a particular cytokine is a way of releasing that cytokine at
the tumor site. In contrast to bolus administration, it provides a constant supply
It is hoped that the account given, in the following pages, of the lives of five great naturalists may not be
found devoid of interest. The work of each one of them marked a definite advance in the science of Biology.
There is often among students of anatomy and physiology a tendency to imagine that the facts with which
they are now being made familiar have all been established by recent observation and experiment. But even
the slight knowledge of the history of Biology, which may be obtained from a perusal of this little book, will
show that, so far from such being the case,...
Genetic origins of amino acids 1.1 Constituents and organisation of DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic coding scheme used by all living organisms to pass on the hereditary programme to the next generation. DNA consists of two cross-linked polynucleotide chains, having an overall length of about 2 metres, which, for eukaryotes, is stored within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus occupies about 10% of the cell volume and is isolated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope, which consists of inner and outer bi-layer lipid membranes.
These differences are likely to stem from three important variations in user-side
data on the use of financial services. First, the definition of an account varies
across surveys and respondents are often prompted in different ways. The Global
Findex survey defines an account as an individual or joint account at a formal
financial institution (a bank, credit union, cooperative, post office, or microfi-
nance institution) and notes in the question text that an account can be used to
save money, to make or receive payments, or to receive wages and remittances.
The parameters for method validation have been defined in different working groups of
national and international committees and are described in the literature. Unfortunately,
some of the definitions vary between the different organizations. An attempt at harmonization
was made for pharmaceutical applications through the ICH where representatives from the
industry and regulatory agencies from the United States, Europe and Japan defined
parameters, requirements and, to some extent, methodology for analytical methods validation....
"Molecular imaging" has been previously defined as "the in vivo characterization and measurement of biologic processes at the cellular and molecular level." This broad definition emerged during the last few years as a consequence of the convergence of molecular and cell biology with imaging science, including medical physics and technology. One of the major goals of molecular imaging has become the development of noninvasive strategies of "molecular profiling" in living subjects, i.e.
Most of the epidemiological studies which compared breast
cancer risk of active smokers to women who were not
smokers (regardless of their passive smoke exposure) have
found no association of smoking and breast cancer risk. But
several studies found that women who smoked had a
decreased breast cancer risk. It is not uncommon for
epidemiological studies to come to different assessments of
health risk, especially when, as in these studies, the associated
risk is not large.
The analysis of blood, bone marrow and tissue fluid specimens requires a multi–faceted approach with the integration of scientific data from a number of disciplines. No single discipline can operate in isolation or errors will occur. Flow cytometry is in a privileged position in that it can provide rapid analysis of specimens and it is often the first definitive investigation to produce results and help formulate a working diagnosis.
Using the broadest possible definition, a lipid (Greek
) may be defined as a compound
of low or intermediate molecular weight (5000), a substantial proportion of which is made up of
hydrocarbons. Included are diverse compounds such as fatty acids; soaps; detergents; steroids;
mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols; and more complex compounds such as phospholipids, sphingolipids,
glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides.