Biomedical research has entered a new era of characterizing a disease or a protein on a global scale. In the post-genomic era, Proteomics now plays an increasingly important role in dissecting molecular functions of proteins and discovering biomarkers in human diseases. Mass spectrometry, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and high-density antibody and protein arrays are some of the most commonly used methods in the Proteomics field.
HIV-1 efficiently infects susceptible cells and causes AIDS in humans.
Although HIV can also enter the cells of Old World monkeys, it encoun-ters a block before reverse transcription. Data have shown that this
species-specific restriction is mediated by tripartite motif (TRIM)5a, whose
molecular function is still undefined.
The genomics revolution of the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of
the genetic composition of living organisms including many plant species of economic
importance. Complete genomic sequences of Arabidopsis and several major crops, together
with high-throughput technologies for analyses of transcripts, proteins and mutants, provide
the basis for understanding the relationship between genes, proteins and phenotypes.
Introduction to molecular biology…(…in one hour!!) Stephen Edwards Overview. Overview of the cell Different sizes/functions Organised structure Bacterial genetics are different Eukaryotic cell DNA ontained in the nucleus Arranged in 22.
The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years
ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since
then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life
sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.
The Dictionary also describes the essential features of some 2,000 enzymes and proteins, the reactions they catalyze and the functions they perform. These entries also include filenames to facilitate the location of entries in databases of sequences and definitions of 950 abbreviations and symbols
From this Chapter we will study thermal properties of matter, that is
what means the terms “hot” or “cold”, what is the difference between
“heat” and “temparature”, and the laws relative to these concepts.
We will know that the thermal phenomena are determined by internal
motions of molecules inside a matter. There exists a form of energy
which is called thermal energy, or “heat”, which is the total energy of
all molecular motions, or internal energy.
EnterohemorrhagicEscherichia coli(EHEC) and enteropathogenic Escheri-chia coli (EPEC) are attaching⁄effacing pathogens that possess a type III
secretion system and deliver a variety of effectors into host cells for suc-cessful infection. EHEC produces at least 20 effector families with various
Chapter 3 introduce to Gene function. This chapter outlines the three activities of genes and provides some background information that will be useful in our deeper explorations in subsequent chapters. This chapter presents the following content: Storing information, replication, mutations.
We will begin this chapter with an examination of functional genomics. Then we will consider a quest that is even more complex than genomics: proteomics, the study of an organism’s proteome—the properties and activities of all the proteins an organism makes in its lifetime. Finally, we will introduce bioinformatics, the discipline concerned with managing and using the vast stores of data that come from genomic, proteomic, and other massive biological studies.
The enzyme fumarase is a conserved protein in all organisms with regard
to its sequence, structure and function. This enzyme participates in the tri-carboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria which is essential for cellular respira-tion in eukaryotes.
The seven serotypes ofClostridium botulinumneurotoxins (A–G) are the
deadliest poison known to humans. They share significant sequence homo-logy and hence possess similar structure–function relationships. Botulinum
neurotoxins (BoNT) act via a four-step mechanism, viz.,
The TEC family is ancient and constitutes the second largest family of cyto-plasmic tyrosine kinases. In 1993, loss-of-function mutations in theBTK
gene were reported as the cause of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Of all
the existing 90 tyrosine kinases in humans, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK)
is the kinase for which most mutations have been identified.
Sco proteins are present in all types of organisms, including the vast major-ity of eukaryotes and many prokaryotes. It is well established that Sco pro-teins in eukaryotes are involved in the assembly of the CuAcofactor of
mitochondrial cytochromecoxidase; however their precise role in this pro-cess has not yet been elucidated at the molecular level.
Polcalcins such as Bet v 4 and Phl p 7 are pollen allergens that are con-structed from EF-hand motifs, which are very common and well character-ized helix–loop–helix motifs with calcium-binding functions, as elementary
building blocks. Being members of an exceptionally well-characterized
protein superfamily, these allergens highlight the fundamental challenge in
explaining what features distinguish allergens from nonallergenic proteins.
Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor (GIF), also named metallothionein-3,
inhibits the outgrowth of neuronal cells. Recent studies on the structure of
human GIF, carried out using NMR and molecular dynamics simulation
techniques, have been summarized.
Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor, later renamed metallothionein-3, is one
of four members of the mammalian metallothionein family. Metallothione-ins are a family of ubiquitous, low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins.
Although neuronal growth-inhibitory factor shares metal-binding and reac-tive oxygen species scavenging properties with the other metallothioneins,
it displays several distinct biological properties. ,
In this series of four minireviews the field of scaffold proteins and proteins
of similar molecular⁄cellular functions is overviewed. By binding and bring-ing into proximity two or more signaling proteins, these proteins direct the
flow of information in the cell by activating, coordinating and regulating
signaling events in regulatory networks.
A tri-functional monomeric primase–polymerase domain encoded by the
plasmid pIT3 fromSulfolobus solfataricusstrain IT3 was identified using a
structural–functional approach. The N-terminal domain of the pIT3 repli-cation protein encompassing residues 31–245 (i.e. Rep245) was modeled
onto the crystallographic structure of the bifunctional primase–polymerase
domain of the archaeal plasmid pRN1 and refined by molecular dynamics
We characterized the expression and functional properties of the ADP-sensitive P2Y1 and P2Y12 nucleotide receptors in glioma C6 cells cultured
in medium devoid of serum for up to 96 h. During this long-term serum
starvation, cell morphology changed from fibroblast-like flat to round, the
adhesion pattern changed, cell-cycle arrest was induced,