Molecular genetic methods

Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả Molecular genetic methods
  • Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. (1). Although tobacco smoking is accepted as the number one cause of this devastating disease, our understanding of the acquired genetic changes leading to lung cancer is still rudimentary. Lung cancer is classifi ed into two major clinic-pathological groups, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (2). Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are the major histologic types of NSCLC....

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  • Biotechnology is the scientific field of studying and applying the most efficient methods and techniques to get useful end-products for the human society by using viable micro-organisms, cells, and tissues of plants or animals, or even certain functional components of their organisms, that are grown in fully controlled conditions to maximize their specific metabolism inside fully automatic bioreactors.

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  • It is my privilege to contribute the foreword for this unique volume entitled: “Plant Tissue Culture Engineering,” edited by S. Dutta Gupta and Y. Ibaraki. While there have been a number of volumes published regarding the basic methods and applications of plant tissue and cell culture technologies, and even considerable attention provided to bioreactor design, relatively little attention has been afforded to the engineering principles that have emerged as critical contributions to the commercial applications of plant biotechnologies.

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  • During the last three decades, important advances have been made in the available treatments for the loss of skeletal tissue as a result of trauma or disease. The application of large skeletal allografts and total joint replacement have become successful and reproducible treatment options. Unfortunately there still is a significant incidence of failure because of mechanical or biological complications.

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  • 1 Molecular Genetics in Ecology What is Molecular Ecology? Over the past 20 years, molecular biology has revolutionized ecological research. During that time, methods for genetically characterizing individuals, populations and species have become almost routine, and have provided us with a wealth

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  • A suite of emerging techniques, known collectively as “molecular imaging,” now offer scientists an unprecedented opportunity to identify, follow, and quantify biologic processes at the cellular level with molecular specificity in intact organisms. For instance, it is now possible to evaluate, with imaging, the distribution, magnitude, and timing of gene expression in genetically altered animals (1–3).

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  • An ultimate goal of modern biology is to understand how the genetic blueprint of cells (genotype) determines the structure, function, and behavior of a living organism (phenotype). At the center of this scientific endeavor is characterizing the biochemical and cellular roles of proteins, the working molecules of the machinery of life. A key to understanding of functional proteins is the knowledge of their folded structures in a cell, as the structures provide the basis for studying proteins’ functions and functional mechanisms at the molecular level....

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  • The molecular definition of tumor antigens, costimulatory signals, and the possibility to genetically engineer tumor cells as well as simple protocols for efficient isolation and preparation of dendritic cells (DC) renew the interest in tumor immunotherapy and vaccination, in particular. Engineering of tumor cells with the gene of a particular cytokine is a way of releasing that cytokine at the tumor site. In contrast to bolus administration, it provides a constant supply of cytokine.

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  • Research objectives: Thesis was the first studied methodically systematic assessment of genetic diversity by morphological indicators combined with molecular markers, identification of Vietnamese native Dendroium species based on the ITS sequences. The results of the thesis have significance in the classification, the conservation service, and selection and breed new varieties; these will be contributing to improve Vietnam orchids.

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  • Despite advances in pharmacology, not all patients respond favourably to drugs. A proportion of patients under therapy don't benefit from their treatment or experience an adverse reaction to the medication. However, progress in the understanding of disease mechanisms and drug actions are opening opportunities to match therapies to patient populations, and thus pave the way towards a more personalised medicine.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • The clinical and basic science of allergic disease is moving and evolving so rapidly that it is nearly impossible to keep up full of information regarding the news mechanisms, signalling cell markers, cellular plasticity and expression, biological mediators targets or molecular and genetic discovers aspects related to the allergy. Moreover the systemic impact of this pathology determines the complexity of the more recent evidence demonstrates that the rapid regulation of central immune organs in clinical response of the mucosa to the allergen or offending agent.

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  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States with 170,000 deaths per year. This exceeds the sum of the next three leading causes of death due to cancer: breast, colon, and prostate. There are over 1 million deaths worldwide due to lung cancer, making it truly an epidemic. Fewer than 15% achieve a 5-yr survival. The vast majority (85%) present with advanced disease, although stage I patients may have a 5-yr survival approaching 70% (1).

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  • There is huge uncertainty about future budget deficits and their financing. Economists disagree about how quickly deficits should be reduced: some would stress deflation risks and others inflation risks. Even if economists were to agree, there would still be great uncertainty about political choices on macroeconomic policy. It is nevertheless certain that government debt/GDP ratios in major countries will continue to rise over the next few years. Even the optimistic G20 pronouncements do not envisage debt/GDP ratios in the advanced countries stabilising before 2016.

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  • I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all theauthors who contributed to this book by sharing their valuable works with us. This book should prove useful to students, researchers, and experts in the area of conservation biology, genetic diversity, and molecular biology. The year 2010 was celebrated as the international year of biodiversity by the United Nations and it has been a unique opportunity to realize the vital role that biodiversity plays in sustaining the life on Earth.

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  • Twenty-five years ago, Georges Köhler and César Milstein invented a means of cloning individual antibodies, thus opening up the way for tremendous advances in the fields of cell biology and clinical diagnostics (1). However, in spite of their early promise, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were largely unsuccessful as therapeutic reagents resulting from insufficient activation of human effector functions and immune reactions against proteins of murine origin.

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  • There is a theoretical concern that women with a short menstrual cycle may ovulate very early in their cycle, putting them at risk of pregnancy if starting contraception as late as Day 5 or Day 7 (LNG-IUS). There is no strong evidence to support or refute the risk but some sources of patient information (e.g. FPA) advise additional contraception for women in this situation if they have a cycle shorter than 23 days. Faculty guidance on postnatal sexual and reproductive health includes recommendations on starting contraceptive methods after childbirth.

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  • This is a book about medical genomics, a new field that is attempting to combine knowledge generated from the Human Genome Project (HGP) and analytic methods from bioinformatics with the practice of medicine. From my perspective as a research molecular biologist, genomics has emerged as a result of automated high-throughput technologies entering the molecular biology laboratory and of bioinformatics being used to process the data.

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  • An overview of the research plan is shown in Figure 3. Paper I covers the background in the form of literature review. Paper II focuses on the optimisation of hot water treatment prior to alkaline peroxide bleaching and on the mechanical refining of hot water treated straw. Paper III focuses on the optimisation of alkaline peroxide bleaching and Paper IV focuses on the chemical pre-treatment/storage of wheat straw. Paper V evaluates the obtained results.

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  • Quantitative methods - including performance testing, indoor air pollution monitoring and questionnaires - can track changes in "quantifiables" and are a means of objectively comparing one intervention against another. Qualitative methods, on the other hand, help reveal the perspectives of individuals or communities and provide important contextual data to explain the results of quantitative analyses. They include in-depth, open-ended interviews, direct observations of behaviours and participatory methods. Sample size, i.e.

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