Molecular innovations

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  • Controlling the impact of stress on brewing biomass, predicting yeast activity and ensuring consistent fermentation performance through successive fermentations remain areas of active interest for the brewing industry. To be able to control and perhaps even manipulate yeast activity, it is necessary to identify factors that affect its functionality during fermentation. Genetic stability and integrity are crucial to maintaining predictable performance.

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  • Molecules, small structures composed of atoms, are essential substances for lives. However, we didn’t have the clear answer to the following questions until the 1920s: why molecules can exist in stable as rigid networks between atoms, and why molecules can change into different types of molecules. The most important event for solving the puzzles is the discovery of the quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the theory for small particles such as electrons and nuclei, and was applied to hydrogen molecule by Heitler and London at 1927.

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  • These carriers have different shapes and sizes, and their biogenesis, modality of transport, and delivery to the final destination are regulated by a multitude of very complex molecular machineries, which include cytoskeletal elements, signaling complexes, and lipid modifying enzymes to name a few. A concept that has clearly emerged in the last decade is that each membrane pathway does not represent a close system, but is fully integrated with all the other trafficking pathways.

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  • In the last two decades, the discovery of signaling roles of ROS demonstrated their universal use in biological systems. The third section of this book, entitled “Reactive Species as Signaling Molecules” contains the chapters covering clear ROS-based signaling in yeasts and plants. It is not strange that many authors provide readers with the information gained from yeasts. This is a very popular classic eukaryotic model system to disclose molecular mechanisms of cellular responses to oxidative stress (Lushchak, 2010). In the first chapter of this book section, M. A.

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  • An Entrepreneurship and Small Business BBS from Massey will provide a thorough understanding of this innovative business sector and equip you with the skills to be a part of it. Small business operators and entrepreneurs play key roles in our society. To survive they must constantly ask questions like, “Do I extend my operations?”, “Do I sell out?”, “How do I build on past success?”, “How do I balance home life with my work?”, and “How do I raise money to finance expansion?”.

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  • Innovate our Way to a Clean Energy Future: Leading the world in clean energy is critical to strengthening the American economy and winning the future. We can get there by creating markets for innovative clean technologies that are ready to deploy, and by funding cutting- edge research to produce the next generation of technologies. And as new, better, and more efficient technologies hit the market, the Federal government needs to put words into action and lead by example.

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  • Eight different isomeric forms of vitamin E (4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols) have been found in nature. Tocotrienols (α, β, γ and δ) are identical in structure to tocopherols except for the degree of saturation in their side chain. However, α-tocopherol is considered to be the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It has been found that the concentrations of vitamin E isomers in human feces are higher than in plasma – possibly due to its limited absorption from the diet, suggesting that it could play a protective role against RONS produced in the GI tract (Halliwell...

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  • Modelling and simulation are disciplines of major importance for science and engineering. There is no science without models, and simulation has nowadays become a very useful tool, sometimes unavoidable, for development of both science and engineering. The main attractive feature of cellular automata is that, in spite of their conceptual simplicity which allows an easiness of implementation for computer simulation, as a detailed and complete mathematical analysis in principle, they are able to exhibit a wide variety of amazingly complex behaviour....

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  • Typically the processes are adapted from wood processing which benefit from the larger mill size (Paper I). However, concerns associated with the local availability of non-wood raw material force pulp mills to remain small and thus lead to the need for processes to be as simple as possible in order to be competitive unless very valuable by-products can also be extracted. The benefits of utilising agro-fibres are their generally lower lignin content compared with woods (Grant 1958, Hurter 1988).

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  • Nanoelectronics is a rapidly expanding field with researchers exploring a very large number of innovative techniques for constructing devices intended to implement high-speed logic or high-density memory. Less common, however, is work intended to examine how to utilize such devices in the construction of a complete computer system. As devices become smaller, it becomes possible to construct ever more complex systems but to do so means that new and challenging problems must be addressed.

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  • The International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology is a non-profit organisation established in 1986 for the purpose of promoting science and research into all aspects of gynecological endocrinology and communication between scientists interested in these subjects. The Society operates through the monthly Journal of Gynecological Endocrinology, the monthly newsletter GynEndo News and the biannual World Congress, a major scientific event which allows a perfect integration of renowned faculty members with talented young scientists presenting innovative research.

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  • Cancer policy at that time was less well developed than it is today, but there had been both widespread concern and innovative thinking about the issues, particularly in relation to breast cancer. This was given an impetus by the implementation of the Breast Screening Programme in the late 80s and early 1990s, which challenged assumptions about the quality of care available for patients with symptomatic disease.

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  • Creativity is defined in this report as the production of new ideas that are fit for a particular business purpose. This sees creativity as the first stage in innovation. Creativity has a role in enhancing all aspects of business performance – from the design of new products and services to their production, marketing and distribution. It is not unusual to link creativity to certain industries such as film, music or design. But the challenge, as noted by the Chancellor, is ‘not just to encourage creative industries, our priority is to encourage all industries to be creative’.

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  • As part of its mandate, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) monitors market developments and advises on their implications for regulatory policy1 . In doing so, it seeks to identify potential vulnerabilities and the actions that may be needed to address them. The recent rapid growth and innovation in the market for Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) is a development that the FSB believes warrants increased attention by regulatory and supervisory authorities, as well as by the ETF industry, including providers, market-makers and investors.

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  • The current crisis is the first of this severity to hit OECD countries, since they have shifted to knowledge-based service economies where investment in intangible assets is of equal importance as investment in machinery, equipment and buildings. Efforts to stimulate the economy need to both reflect the current drivers of economic growth and take advantage of the process of “creative destruction” to accelerate structural shifts towards a stronger and more sustainable economic future.

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  • Poor people juggle complex financial transactions every day and use sophisticated techniques to manage their finances, whether they use the formal financial system or not. 4 We cannot assume that all those who do not use formal financial services are somehow constrained from participating in the formal financial sector—ac- cess and use are not the same thing. But the recent success of mobile money in Sub-Saharan Africa shows that innovations can bring about dramatic changes in how people engage in financial transactions.

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  • We should support projects that improve the efficiency and productivity of public media operations. Initiatives that help stations raise more money, reduce overhead and operating costs, and attain operating scale will increase the effectiveness, sustainability, and impact of stations whether funding is reduced or increased.  In this context of uncertainty, the Three Ds are more important than ever: Dialogue is at the core of station impact.

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  • This new strategy is supported by significant changes in Nokia’s leadership, operational structure and approach. Effective today, Nokia has a new leadership team with the commitment, competencies and innovative thinking needed in today’s dynamic environment. The Nokia Leadership Team, previously the Group Executive Board, will consist of the following members: Stephen Elop, Esko Aho, Juha Akras, Jerri DeVard, Colin Giles, Rich Green, Jo Harlow, Timo Ihamuotila, Mary McDowell, Kai Oistamo, Tero Ojanpera, Louise Pentland and Niklas Savander.

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  • The importance of rigorous training of clients to the success of microfinance cannot be overemphasized. The most successful programs and institutions train their staff and train their clients, both initially and in stages, over time. Training includes diverse topics such as customer service, purchasing stock, marketing, time management, bookkeeping and planning for the future. In the end, a successful microfinance institution must achieve the “double bottom-line” – economic growth without compromising their core mission of serving poor clients.

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  • The strategy promotes a long-term, sustainable HIV response through strengthening health and community systems, tackling the social determinants of health that both drive the epidemic and hinder the response, and protecting and promoting human rights and promoting gender equity as essential elements of the health sector response. It strengthens integration between HIV and other health services, improving both impact and efficiency.

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