Molecular pathogenesis

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  • Numerous virus–target cell interactions have been described, and it is now clear that different viruses can use similar host-cell receptors for entry. The list of certain and likely host receptors for viral pathogens is long. Among the host membrane components that can serve as receptors for viruses are sialic acids, gangliosides, glycosaminoglycans, integrins and other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, histocompatibility antigens, and regulators and receptors for complement components.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 114. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis: Introduction Over the past three decades, molecular studies of the pathogenesis of microorganisms have yielded an explosion of information about the various microbial and host molecules that contribute to the processes of infection and disease.

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  • Mainly, the genome project has fundamentally changed the way in which we approach questions in biology. The technology that the genome project has enabled, rather than the data it has produced, has induced the most profound impact on our conduct of biological research. In particular, functional genomics approaches, suchs as DNA microarrays, proteomics and metabolomics have greatly increased the rate at which we can generate data on biological systems allowing us, to begin to observe on a molecular level the holistic response of an organism to a particular stimulus (Quackenbush, 2006)....

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  • Molecular cloning has identified eight metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes, each with distinct patterns of expression. However, the characteristic roles of these different mGluRs in physiological processes are not well understood. Identification of subtype-specific compounds may potentially act as therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of conditions (including progressive brain disease, epilepsy and cerebral ischemia) all of which are associated with abnormal mGLuR activation.

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  • Over the past 20 years, technological advances in molecular biology have proven invaluable to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer. The application of molecular technology to the study of cancer has not only led to advances in tumor diagnosis, but has also provided markers for the assessment of prognosis and disease progression. The aim of Molecular Analysis of Cancer is to provide a comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date techniques for the detection of molecular changes in human cancer.

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  • Expressiveness refers to the ability of the event notification service to provide a powerful data model with which to capture information about events, to express filters and patterns on notifications of interest, and to use that data model as the basis for optimizing notification delivery.

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  • Since 1995, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has been committed to reducing the public health hazards associated with prisons and protecting and promoting health in prisons. Regional Office reports such as the 2007 Health in prisons: a WHO guide to the essentials in prison health have combined the latest research and analysis from experts in the field and have raised the profile of prison health issues.

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  • In March 1997 the Bank started conducting daily money market operations in gilt repo. Since this date we have used GC repo data to estimate the short end of the nominal yield curve, and so the short end of the nominal curve is provided down to very short maturities after this date. No corresponding instrument is available to help model the short end of the real yield curve.

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  • At the beginning of the 21st century, medicine is increasingly based on understanding the functions of genes and the molecular mechanisms of diseases. In pancreatology, the understanding of functions and dysfunctions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas is derived from molecular biological data on the actions of compounds in subcellular compartments and intracellular transcription pathways.

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  • We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’ basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of the material.

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  • The Directive culminated in the passage of the 1989 Companies Act. Specifically, we explore how the UK accountancy profession and the government were concerned to construct, articulate and negotiate particular meanings of what it is to be professional, self regulated, independent and commercial. The second episode concerns the impact on the accounting profession of the Financial Services Act. Initially, this regulation, developed to improve "investor protection" as well as to abolish restrictive practices, was understood to be unrelated to the work of accountants.

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  • An Entrepreneurship and Small Business BBS from Massey will provide a thorough understanding of this innovative business sector and equip you with the skills to be a part of it. Small business operators and entrepreneurs play key roles in our society. To survive they must constantly ask questions like, “Do I extend my operations?”, “Do I sell out?”, “How do I build on past success?”, “How do I balance home life with my work?”, and “How do I raise money to finance expansion?”.

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  • The shifting market trends posed a significant challenge to De Beers’ preeminent position. Throughout the 1990s, the company’s inventories increased while its sales remained flat. To address this issue De Beers chose a transformational strategy: instead of maintaining its long-standing role as steward of the entire industry, it would become a leader in driving consumer demand. One of the key elements of that transformation was a program called Supplier of Choice. Launched in 2003, the program aimed to shift some of the responsibility for marketing to other players in the industry.

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  • Innovate our Way to a Clean Energy Future: Leading the world in clean energy is critical to strengthening the American economy and winning the future. We can get there by creating markets for innovative clean technologies that are ready to deploy, and by funding cutting- edge research to produce the next generation of technologies. And as new, better, and more efficient technologies hit the market, the Federal government needs to put words into action and lead by example.

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  • Financial development is important for fostering economic growth and stability. This is a feature of the development process that has been extensively documented in the literatures (see Levine). 1 One of key components in this process is capital market development. For example, deepening the long-term local bond market facilitates the reduction of currency and maturity mismatches on corporations’ balance sheets. This also creates alternatives to bank financing that can support efficiency and stability.

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  • The direct effect of probiotics in the lumen include the competition with pathogens for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and in particular organic acids competitive inhibition on the receptor sites, change in the composition of mucin hydrolysis of toxins, receptor hydrolysis, and nitric oxide (NO). The indirect effect of probiotics largely depends on the site of interaction between the probiotic and the effectors of the immune response. Thantasha et al.

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  • But the same processes that have produced these gains have given rise to trends that the planet and its people cannot long bear. These have traditionally been divided into failures of 'development' and failures in the management of our human environment. On the development side, in terms of absolute numbers there are more hungry people in the world than ever before, and their numbers are increasing. So are the numbers who cannot read or write, the numbers without safe water or safe and sound homes, and the numbers short of woodfuel with which to cook and warm themselves.

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  • Research indicates that in most facilities the identification of HIV infection among women in prevention of vertical transmission programs is used as an entry point to recommend HIV testing and counselling to other family members. However, all respondents noted that the number of sexual partners who make use of these services is still extremely low.

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  • FORTY years have passed since the first German-language edition of this volume was published. In the course of these four decades the world has gone through many disasters and catastrophes. The policies that brought about these unfortunate events have also affected the nations' currency systems. Sound money gave way to progressively depreciating fiat money. All countries are to-day vexed by inflation and threatened by the gloomy prospect of a complete break-down of their currencies.

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  • Our experience in working with nearly 1,000 bankers has conclusively demonstrated that the greatest training value is obtained when participants actually retain and confidently use what they were taught. The key to retention is repetition over some period of time; lasting results can never be obtained from one-time motivational pep talks, CDs or TeleTraining alone. There must be an element of personal, consistent follow-up and contact.

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