Molecular pathology

Xem 1-20 trên 35 kết quả Molecular pathology
  • Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. (1). Although tobacco smoking is accepted as the number one cause of this devastating disease, our understanding of the acquired genetic changes leading to lung cancer is still rudimentary. Lung cancer is classifi ed into two major clinic-pathological groups, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (2). Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are the major histologic types of NSCLC....

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  • In routine histopathology, most tissues are fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin for long-term preservation. DNA can be extracted from these tissues for subsequent molecular analysis by amplification methods. We describe herein a protocol for DNA preparation from paraffin-embedded tissues based on published procedures (1–3). In brief, tissue sections are placed into microfuge tubes, then deparaffinized with xylene. The xylene is removed with ethanol washes, and the tissue is treated with proteinase K to make DNA available for amplification....

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  • “This book is both up-to-date and “This book covers aiswide range of very informative for traditional subjects, and it refreshing to and new generations of plant virologists in both industrialized and developing nations of the world. Moreover, some chapters present very interesting concepts regarding the use of molecular techniques to gain new insight into long-standing pathological issues, such as virus evolution, host adaptation, and epidemiology.

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  • Cancer may constitute the most extensively studied disease entity of our time. Nevertheless, our comprehension of the cellular and molecular pathology of malignant transformation is incomplete. In view of the diverse clinical presentations of various malignancies, doubts may be raised as to whether it is appropriate to refer to cancer as one group of disease states. The notion of malignant tumors as a pathologic and pathophysiologic class of conditions begs the question for defining criteria that characterize all malignant growths, regardless of their tissue of origin....

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  • Tissue Engineering is the first medical therapy where engineered tissues could potentially become fully integrated within the patient, thus offering a permanent cure for many diseases not curable today.

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  • The determination of enzyme AChE continues to be widely used to measure the exposure to OF and C, however, interpretations of results are highly variable, since there are genetic and physiological causes as well as associated pathologies, which can decrease the levels of this enzyme (Varona et al, 2007).

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  • A dramatic increase in knowledge regarding the molecular biology of brain tumors has been established over the past few years, and this has lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this book a review of the options available for the clinical management of patients with these tumors are outlined. In addition advances in radiology both for pre-operative diagnostic purposes along with surgical planning are described.

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  • Many cancer patients are diagnosed at a stage in which the cancer is too far advanced to be cured, and most cancer treatments are effective in only a minority of patients undergoing therapy. Thus, there is tremendous opportunity to improve the outcome for people with cancer by enhancing detection and treatment approaches. Biomarkers will be instrumental in making that transition.

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  • Helicobacter pyloriis a very successful human-specific bacterium world-wide. Infections of the stomach with this pathogen can induce pathologies, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer. Highly vir-ulentH.Tegtmeyer1,

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  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs of 18–25 nucleotides that are generally believed to either block the translation or induce the deg-radation of target mRNA. miRNAs have been shown to play fundamental roles in diverse biological and pathological processes, including cell prolif-eration, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis.

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  • This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available.

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  • Anxiety and panic disorders have now reached the size of a pandemic: a third of the western world and a substantial part of that global world that is facing to the modern (western) world suffer of pathological anxiety more or less seriously. According to NIMH data, onset of anxiety disorders is the earliest of all mental disorders (11 yrs age), and the 12-months prevalence in USA is 18.1% of adult population (of them, about 23% is graded serious or very...

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  • Aleksandra Klemba1,2, Magdalena Kowalewska3, Wojciech Kukwa4, Katarzyna Tonska1, Aleksandra Szybinska5, Malgorzata Mossakowska5, Anna Scinska4, Paweł Golik1,6, Kamil Koper1, Jakub Radziszewski7, Andrzej Kukwa4, Anna M Czarnecka1,2*, Ewa Bartnik1,6 Abstract Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology.

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  • Welcome to the home of the online edition of The Cancer Handbook which provides a comprehensive overview of all major areas of cancer research and oncology. This title differs from existing oncology textbooks and reference works in that it bridges the gap between the molecular biology of cancer and clinical diagnosis and treatment. As more and more laboratory research is applied to clinical management, e.g. the use of monoclonal antibodies as drugs, it is important that clinicians understand the aetiology of the disease and the molecular basis of the new therapeutic approaches. ...

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  • Conformational diseases constitute a group of heterologous disorders in which a constituent host protein undergoes changes in conformation, lead-ing to aggregation and deposition. To understand the molecular mecha-nisms of the process of amyloid fibril formation, numerousin vitro and in vivo studies, including model and pathologically relevant proteins, have been performed.

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  • In the early 1990s, breakthrough discoveries on the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease led to the identification of missense mutations in the amyloid-b precursor proteingene. Research findings quickly followed, giving insights into molecular pathogenesis and possibilities for the development of new types of animal models.

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  • The serine endopeptidase elastase-2 from human polymorphonuclear leu-kocytes is associated with physiological remodeling and pathological deg-radation of the extracellular matrix. Glycosaminoglycans bound to the matrix or released after proteolytic processing of the core proteins of pro-teoglycans are potential ligands of elastase-2.

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  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been the focus of a number of stu-dies due to its ability to promote septic shock and a massive impact on the human immune system. Even though symptoms and pathology associated with SEB is well known, early molecular events that lead to lethality are still poorly understood.

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  • The biochemical nature and the replication of infectious prions have been intensively studied in recent years. Much less is known about the cellular events underlying neuronal dysfunction and cell death. As the cellular func-tion of the normal cellular isoform of prion protein is not exactly known, the impact of gain of toxic function or loss of function, or a combination of both, in prion pathology is still controversial.

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  • Protein glycation by methylglyoxal is a nonenzymatic post-translational modification whereby arginine and lysine side chains form a chemically heterogeneous group of advanced glycation end-products. Methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end-products are involved in pathologies such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases of the amyloid type.

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