Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is
used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment
helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical
Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep-
tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the
chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of
molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.
It is often said that computers are revolutionizing science and engineering.
By using computers we are able to construct complex engineering
designs such as space shuttles. We are able to compute the properties
of the universe as it was fractions of a second after the big bang. Our
ambitions are ever-increasing. We want to create even more complex
designs such as better spaceships, cars, medicines, computerized cellular
phone systems, and the like. We want to understand deeper aspects
of nature. These are just a few examples of computer-supported modeling
This book deals with topics in atomic and molecular structure and
dynamics that are important to astronomy. Indeed, the topics selected
are of central interest to the field of astronomy, many having been initiated
by the needs of understanding worlds other than ours. Except
for some lunar surface material returned by the Apollo missions, and
material naturally delivered to us by cosmic rays, comets, and meteors,
our only access to the other worlds of our astronomical Universe is
through our observations of electromagnetic radiation from them.
Hydrogenophilus thermoluteoluscytochromec¢ (PHCP) has typical spectral
properties previously observed for other cytochromesc¢, which comprise
Ambler’s class II cytochromesc. The PHCP protein sequence (135 amino
acids) deduced from the cloned gene is the most homologous (55% iden-tity) to that of cytochrome c¢ from Allochromatium vinosum(AVCP).
Abstract: “Brown dwarfs” is the collective name for objects more massive than giant
planets such as Jupiter but less massive than M dwarf stars. This review gives a brief
description of the classification and chemistry of low mass dwarfs. The current spectral
classification of stars includes L and T dwarfs that encompass the coolest known stars
and substellar objects. The relatively low atmospheric temperatures and high total
pressures in substellar dwarfs lead to molecular gas and condensate chemistry.