Molecular transport

Xem 1-20 trên 72 kết quả Molecular transport
  • In Bacteria and Archaea, high-affinity potassium uptake is mediated by the ATP-driven KdpFABC complex. On the basis of the biochemical properties of the ATP-hydrolyzing subunit KdpB, the transport complex is classified as type IA P-type ATPase.

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  • ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters form a large family of transmem-brane proteins that facilitate the transport of specific substrates across membranes in an ATP-dependent manner. Transported substrates include lipids, lipopolysaccharides, amino acids, peptides, proteins, inorganic ions, sugars and xenobiotics.

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  • Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) form supramolecular protein complexes that are capable of transporting DNA or protein substrates across the bacterial cell envelope and, in many cases, also across eukaryotic target cell membranes.

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  • Methanosarcina mazeiis a methanogenic archaeon that is able to thrive on various substrates and therefore contains a variety of redox-active proteins involved in both cytoplasmic and membrane-bound electron transport. The organism possesses a complex branched respiratory chain that has the abil-ity to utilize different electron donors.

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  • Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1⁄like aux1 (AUX⁄LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum.

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  • cGMP secretion from cells can be mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCC4, ABCC5, and ABCC11. Indirect evidence sug-gests that ABCC4 and ABCC5 contribute to cGMP transport by erythro-cytes. We have re-investigated the issue using erythrocytes from wild-type and transporter knockout mice.

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  • The nature of cGMP transport in human erythrocytes, its relationship to glutathione conjugate transport, and pos-sible mediation by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) have been investigated. MRP1, MRP4 and MRP5 are detected in immunoblotting studies with erythrocytes. MRP1and MRP5 are also detected in multidrug resistant COR-L23/R and MOR/R cells but at greatly reduced levels in the parent, drug sensitive COR-L23/P cells. MRP4 is detected in MOR/R but not COR-L23/R cells.

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  • In  Molecular simulation of nanoparticle diffusion at fluid interfaces molecular dynamics simulations are used to exam- ine the transport properties of a nanoparticle in both bulk solvent and at a liquid–liquid interface. Specifically it aims to address the effect of interfacial adsorption on the diffusion of nanoparticles (at low concentration).

     

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  • TheSaccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar ATP-binding cassette transporter Ycf1p is involved in heavy metal detoxification by mediating the ATP-dependent transport of glutathione–metal conjugates to the vacuole. In the case of selenite toxicity, deletion of YCF1was shown to confer increased resistance, rather than sensitivity

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  • The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2HCT) family of secondary trans-porters belongs to a much larger structural class of secondary transporters termed ST3 which contains about 2000 transporters in 32 families. The transporters of the 2HCT family are among the best studied in the class. Here we detect weak sequence similarity between the N- and C-terminal halves of the proteins using a sensitive method which uses a database con-taining the N- and C-terminal halves of all the sequences in ST3 and involves blastsearches of each sequence in the database against the whole database. ...

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  • Glucose transporters (GLUTs) have been implicated in adaptive and survival responses to hypoxic stress in mam-mals. In fish, the expression and regulation ofGLUT in relation to hypoxia remains unexplored. Here we describe the identification ofa hypoxia-responsive glucose transpor-ter gene (gcGLUT) and the corresponding full-length cDNA from the grass carp. The gene spans 11 kb ofgenomic sequence and consists of12 exons and 11 introns, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1599 bp encoding a poly-peptide of533 amino acids, with a predictedmolecularmass of57 kDa and a pI of8.34....

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Heart rate and rhythm molecular basis pharmacological modulation and clinical implications" presents the following contents: Mechanisms of inherited arrhythmia, role of specific channels and transporters in arrhythmia, drugs and cardiac arrhythmia.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "BRS Biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics" presents the following contents: Organic chemistry review; protein structure and function; enzymes, biochemistry of digestion; glycolysis; the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative metabolism; glycogen metabolism; gluconeogenesis and the maintenance of blood glucose levels,... and other contents.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • This first part is concerned with processes in which the kinetic behaviour of a gaseous phase is rate-determining. The range of processes includes some which are carried out in vacuum systems in which Knudsen or free evaporation occurs from a condensed phase, to transport reactions where a chemical reaction occurs between a solid and the gaseous phase to produce molecular species containing some or all of the elements occurring in the solid phase.

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  • Permanganate may be applied to sites as either potassium permanganate (KMnO4) or sodium permanganate (NaMnO4). Where cost dominates over engineering factors at a site, potassium permanganate is the preferred chemical form because it is more widely available, less costly, and is available in solid form, which facilitates transport and handling. Where other factors are more important, the liquid form of sodium permangante is preferable.

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  • Engineering is the integration of art and science and involves the use of systematic knowledge based on the principles of mathematics and the physical sciences to design and develop systems that have direct practical applicability for the benefit of mankind and society.With this philosophy in mind, the importance of the engineering sciences becomes obvious, and this is especially true for the biomedical aspects, where the implications are easily identifiable. Of all the engineering sciences, biomedical engineering is considered to be the broadest.

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  • Thus, in living cells, the rates of anterograde and retrograde transport between the two organelles appear to have a substantial effect on the morphology of the Golgi. The effect of the balance between anterograde and retrograde transport on the morphology of the ER remains to be explored. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that alteration in Golgi morphology during mitosis is not a passive process but rather an active one, which is highly coordinated with entry into mitosis and its progression.

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  • The life cycle of the retrovirus consist of several steps. It begins with the binding of the viral envelope to cellular receptors, which enables fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane. Consequently, the viral particle is uncoated, liberating the viral core into the cell cytoplasm. The viral DNA is reverse transcribed to DNA. Then, the viral DNA is transported to the nucleus where it is integrated into the host cell’s genome. From there, viral DNA is transcribed to RNA, some of which is translated to proteins.

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  • MECHANICS IS THE ENGINEERING SCIENCE that deals with studying, defining, and mathematically quantifying “interactions” that take place among “things” in our universe. Our ability to perceive the physical manifestation of such interactions is embedded in the concept of a force, and the “things” that transmit forces among themselves are classified for purposes of analysis as being solid, fluid, or some combination of the two.

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