The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was carried out between 2001
and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being
and to establish the basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and
sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.
Iron overload in the liver may occur in clinical conditions such as hemo-chromatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and may lead to the deterior-ation of the normal liver architecture by mechanisms not well understood.
Although a relationship between the expression of ICAM-1, and classical
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, and iron over-load has been reported, no relationship has been identified between iron
overload and the expression of unconventional MHC class I molecules....
Several new aspects have been
highlighted: for example, a novel role for lipids as receptors which drive protein
sorting, the diversity of the sorting events that occur at the level of the Golgi
apparatus, and the cross talk between exocytosis and autophagy. Moreover, an
interesting example of how the knowledge of these pathways is exploited to generate
novel secretory routes to direct the synthesis of bio-molecules in “cell factories” is
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infects human lung epithelial cells and induces gene expression of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules...
About 400 years ago, the invention of telescopes and microscopes not only extended
our sense of seeing but also revolutionized our perception of the world. Extending this
perception further and further has since been the driving force for major scientific developments.
Local probe techniques extend our sense of touching into the micro- and
nanoworld and in thisway provide complementary newinsight into theseworlds with microscopic
We report here a new method for inhibition of RNA viruses induced by
dsDNA. We demonstrated that both long dsDNA molecules and short
interfering DNA with a sequence complementary to that of viral RNA
inhibited tobacco mosaic virus expression and prevented virus spread. Also,
the expression of the HIV-1 gp41 gene in HeLa cells was inhibited by com-plementary short interfering DNA.
In haem-regulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) fromEscheri-chia coli(EcDOS), haem is bound to the PAS domain, and
the redox state of the haem iron regulates catalysis by the
PDEdomain.We generatedmutants ofAsp40, which forms
a hydrogen bondwithHis77 (a proximal haemaxial ligand)
via twowater molecules, and a salt bridge withArg85 at the
protein surface. The redox potential of haem was markedly
increased from67 mVvs. the standardhydrogenelectrode in
the wild-type enzyme to 95 mV and 114 mV in the Ala and
Asn mutants, respectively. ...
Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and
bind H⁄ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as
precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine
synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic
disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogen-esis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation.
In recent years major progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism
and structure of catalytic RNA molecules, and we are now beginning to
understand ribozymes well enough to turn them into useful tools. Work in
our laboratory has focused on the development of twin ribozymes for site-specific RNA sequence alteration. To this end, we followed a strategy that
relies on the combination of two ribozyme units into one molecule (hence
dubbed twin ribozyme).
To gain insight in the subcellular localization of tumor
necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF4) we
analyzed GFP chimeras of full-length TRAF4 and various
deletionmutants derived thereof.While TRAF4–GFP (T4–
GFP) was clearlylocalized in the cytoplasm, the N-terminal
deletion mutant, T4(259–470), comprising the TRAF
domain of the molecule, and a C-terminal deletion mutant
consisting mainlyof the RING and zinc finger domains of
TRAF4 were both localized predominantlyto the nucleus....
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. Specifically, metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles. The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological cell, tissue, organ or organism, which are the end products of cellular processes.
Cell membranes act as barriers to most, but not all, molecules. The development of a cell membrane that could allow some materials to pass while constraining the movement of other molecules was a major step in the evolution of the cell. Cell membranes are differentially (or semi-) permeable barriers separating the inner cellular environment from the outer cellular (or external) environment.
A need for a book on immunology which primarily focuses on the needs of medical
and clinical research students was recognized. This book is relatively short and
contains topics considered relevant to the understanding of human immune system
and its role in health and diseases. Immunology is the study of our protection from
foreign macromolecules or invading organisms and our responses to them. These
invaders include viruses, bacteria, protozoa or even larger parasites.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 106. Plasma Cell Disorders
Plasma Cell Disorders: Introduction
The plasma cell disorders are monoclonal neoplasms related to each other by virtue of their development from common progenitors in the B lymphocyte lineage. Multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, primary
amyloidosis (Chap. 324), and the heavy chain diseases comprise this group and may be designated by a variety of synonyms such as monoclonal gammopathies, paraproteinemias, plasma cell dyscrasias, and dysproteinemias.
As we were at pains to point out in the companion volume to this monograph,
entitled Complexity in Chemistry: Introduction and Fundamentals,
complexity is to be encountered just about everywhere. All that is needed
for us to see it is a suitably trained eye and it then appears almost magically
in all manner of guises. Because of its ubiquity, complexity has been and
currently still is being defined in a number of different ways. Some of these
definitions have led us to major and powerful new insights.
Calorimetry, as a technique for thermal analysis, has a wide range of applications which are not only limited to studying the thermal characterisation (e.g. melting temperature, denaturation temperature and enthalpy change) of small and large drug molecules, but are also extended to characterisation of fuel, metals and oils.
PLANT CELLS ARE SEPARATED from their environment by a plasma membrane that is only two lipid molecules thick. This thin layer separates a relatively constant internal environment from highly variable external surroundings. In addition to forming a hydrophobic barrier to diffusion, the membrane must facilitate and continuously regulate the inward and outward traffic of selected molecules and ions as the cell takes up nutrients, exports wastes, and regulates its turgor pressure.
PLANT BIOLOGISTS MAY BE FORGIVEN for taking abiding satisfaction in the fact that Mendel’s classic studies on the role of heritable factors in development were carried out on a flowering plant: the garden pea. The heritable factors that Mendel discovered, which control such characters as flower color, flower position, pod shape, stem length, seed color, and seed shape, came to be called genes. Genes are the DNA sequences that encode the RNA molecules directly involved in making the enzymes and structural proteins of the cell.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 116. Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use
Principles of Immunization
The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.