This book is about the distribution and abundance of different
types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially
the biological features and interactions that determine these
distributions and abundances.
Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is
apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered
nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But
ecology is not an easy science.
Estuarine Research, Monitoring, and Resource Protection
is principally designed as
a reference volume for estuarine and watershed scientists, resource managers, decision
makers, and other professionals who deal with coastal zone issues. Information
contained in this volume will be useful to individuals conducting either basic or
applied research on estuaries. It will also be valuable to administrators engaged in
coastal resource management programs.
Product evaluation is an important part of brewing, whether performed informally or formally and
whether the product is from a commercial or home brewery. Formal beer evaluation serves three
primary purposes in the context of brewing competitions. First, the beer evaluations provide feedback to
the brewer concerning how well an individual recipe represents its intended beer style. This feedback
can be useful as recipes are fine-tuned and attempts are made to improve the beer. Second, beer
evaluations may provide brewers with troubleshooting advice.
The United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP 2005b, 20) documents that the poorest
40 per cent of the world’s population, that is, the
2.5 billion people who live on less than two dollars
a day, account for 5 per cent of the world’s
income, while the richest 10 per cent, most of
them living in high-income countries, account for
54 per cent of the world’s income.
When assessing global poverty, it is important to
keep in mind that inequalities are not just intrinsic
to differences in income between countries or
between groups and individuals within a country.
Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health pro-
fessional. This booklet offers an overview of those challenges,
focusing on acute conditions, with patterns that point to par-
ticular agents and suggestions for appropriate remedial action.
The individual presenting with environmentally
associated symptoms is apt to have been exposed to airborne
substances originating not outdoors, but indoors. Studies from
the United States and Europe show that persons in industrial-
ized nations spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors1.
It is a young and fast-growing industry that continues to evolve and expand both financially
and geographically. This industry’s vast market includes devout Muslims in indigenous
Muslim societies as well as in Muslim minorities of non-Muslim countries. Furthermore, it
offers a broad appeal beyond its traditional Muslim base: non-Muslim individuals and
communities that seek ethical financial solutions have also been attracted to Islamic
The first modern Islamic financial institutions emerged in the 1960s and 1970s.
The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) authorized the development of several new types of
health plans for the elderly. The new Special Needs Plans (SNPs) are of particular relevance to the disabled
elderly population. MMA allowed for three types of Special Need Plans, one aimed at residents of SNFs, a
second aimed at dual Medicare and Medicaid eligible individuals, and a third aimed at patients with one or
more chronic disease problems. To date, most SNPs have targeted the dually eligible but all three could be
relevant to health centers serving the disabled elderly.
A small minority of respondents indicated that their LRSPs include an explicit definition of the
term “ECAI.” For instance, under the Australian prudential standards, an ECAI is defined as
“an entity that assigns credit ratings designed to measure the creditworthiness of a
counterparty or certain types of debt obligations of a counterparty.”
The majority of respondents indicated that their LRSPs reference specific credit rating
agencies. All but one of those respondents mentioned Moody’s Investors Service, Standard
& Poor’s Ratings Services, and Fitch Ratings.
In addition, it is important to demonstrate the sustaina-
bility and cultural acceptability of a given intervention.
Documenting these impacts will help generate the evidence
to convince policy-makers and donors at all levels that
household energy interventions work in reducing one of
the major global threats to children's and women's health.
In 2005, WHO organized a series of 5-day training
workshops as a step towards building regional capacity in
the area of household energy and indoor air pollution
EDRN is at the forefront of technology-driven research on the use of
biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. By identifying and validat-
ing biomarkers, such as novel proteins or changes in gene expression, it
is possible to measure an individual’s disease risk, progression of disease,
or response to therapy. Ultimately, EDRN research will aid in prevention
and in early therapeutic intervention, based on early detection of disease.
The size of banks’ balance sheets and the
maturity structure of assets and liabilities is key
to the generation of liquidity. Taking the view
that banks manage their assets and liabilities
independently of each other overlooks the
structural interdependence between the asset
side and the liability side of the balance sheet.
Worldwide, 50 percent of adults report having an individual or joint account at
a formal financial institution. But while account penetration is nearly universal
in high-income economies, with 89 percent of adults reporting that they have
an account at a formal financial institution, it is only 41 percent in developing
economies. Globally, more than 2.5 billion adults do not have a formal account,
most of them in developing economies.
The differences in account ownership by individual characteristics are particularly
large in developing economies.
No evidence of a difference in content of nutrients and other substances between
organically and conventionally produced crops and livestock products was detected for the
majority of nutrients assessed in this review suggesting that organically and conventionally
produced crops and livestock products are broadly comparable in their nutrient content.
TIGTA’s audit work is concentrated on high-risk areas and the IRS’s progress in achieving its
strategic goals. To identify FY 2012 high-risk areas for audit coverage, TIGTA uses a risk-
assessment strategy within its core business areas. The Assistant Inspectors General for Audit
advise the Deputy Inspector General for Audit on the major risks facing the IRS in their
respective program areas and annually propose a national audit plan based on perceived risks,
stakeholder concerns, and follow-up reviews of previously audited areas with significant control
In its most general form, a distributed event notiﬁcation service is composed
of interconnected servers, each one serving some subset of the clients of the
service, as shown in Figure 1. (Some use the terms proxy and broker instead
of the term server.) The clients are of two kinds: objects of interest, which are
the generators of events, and interested parties, which are the consumers of
event notiﬁcations. Of course, a client can act as both an object of interest
and an interested party.
Apple Remote Desktop (ARD) is a Macintosh application produced by Apple Inc., first released on March 14, 2002, that replaced a similar product called Apple Network Assistant. Aimed at computer administrators responsible for large numbers of computers and teachers who need to assist individuals or perform group demonstrations, Apple Remote Desktop allows users to remotely control or monitor other computers over a network.
Most important acknowledgements go to all the contributing authors for their
assistance, eagerness, support, and their expert scientific reviews. I thank my
colleagues, Lipa Cicin-Sain, Maja Matulic and Mladen Paradzik for the motivating and
inspiring discussions. Thanks to my husband Darko for taking care of our children
during the long days and weekends while I worked on this project, and for his
understanding and encouragement.
Management is responsible for the identification, assessment,
management and monitoring of risk, for developing, operating and
monitoring the system of internal control and for providing assurance to
the board that it has done so. Except where the board or a risk
committee is expressly responsible for reviewing the effectiveness of the
internal control and risk management systems, the audit committee
should receive reports from management on the effectiveness of the
systems they have established and the results of any testing carried out
by internal and external auditors.
Common to these episodes is a struggle to manage tensions associated with the (long-
term) movement of accountants into markets that have not been conventionally associated
with their professional expertise and status.
ROs should have published procedures which are readily accessible, both
within the organisation and externally, for the normal supervision and
management of research conduct, integrity and ethical issues, and for the
repor ting by individuals of any concerns about poor practice in these areas.