In the following pages it has been my endeavor to present, first, the results of a careful and impartial
investigation into the present and prospective status of the monopolies in every industry; and, second, to
discuss in all fairness the questions in regard to these monopolies--their cause, growth, future prospects, evils,
and remedies--which every thinking man is to-day asking.
The present volume is a study of industry and trade; with special reference to the technical
evolution of industry, and its influences on the conditions of man’s life and work. It is
designed to be followed by a companion volume, which is to bo occupied with influences
on those conditions exerted by the resources available for employment; by money
and credit; by international trade; and by social endeavour.
Road accident related fatal risk differs from air pollution related risk. The latter is to a large extent
involuntary and beyond the responsibility and control of those exposed to it. In addition, while taking
the risk of a traffic accident, driving itself offers a direct personal benefit. On the other hand, air
pollution related risk is less often connected to a direct personal benefit, although it is to some extent
transport induced. Because of this different risk context, air pollution related risk aversion is likely to
be higher than for fatal road accidents.
Internal combustion engines have experienced an enjoyed monopoly for almost a
century as power sources of road transport vehicles. But, in the same period, vehicle
ownership and mileages increased to a level that the resulting petroleum based fuel
consumption, urban air pollutants and green house gas emissions (the challenging
triad) have became great concern especially for past a few decades.