Morphologic classification

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  • In response to a growing need to bridge aspects of geography and ecology, Troll (1950, 1968) coined the term “landscape ecology,” which was adopted as a new scientific discipline. According to Troll (1968), the landscape can be studied in terms of its morphology, classification, and changes in time (history), as well as the functional relationships between its components, which he called landscape ecology. Troll also considered that problems of landscape protection as well as management should be included in geographical analyses of landscapes.

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  • Chapter 1 presents IVUS. Intravascular ultrasound images represent a unique tool to guide interventional coronary procedures; this technique allows to supervise the cross-sectional locations of the vessel morphology and to provide quantitative and qualitative information about the causes and severity of coronary diseases. At the moment, the automatic extraction of this kind of information is performed without taking into account the basic signal principles that guide the process of image generation....

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  • Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. There are no screening tests available for its diagnosis, therefore patients usually presents in late stages, associated with poor prognosis. Currently, many efforts are made toward new advances in the treatment strategies. The book makes an insight into the assessment of premalignant lesions, current management of early gastric cancer, risk and protective factors in gastric carcinogenesis.

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  • The traditional classification of acute leukemia used criteria proposed by the French– American–British Cooperative Group (FAB) , using the 30% bone marrow blast cell cutoff (Bennett et al, 1985). This classification system originally distinguished different leukemia types by morphologic features and cytochemical studies, particularly myeloperoxidase (or Sudan black B) and non-specific esterase staining. It was revised to include leukemia types that could only be accurately identified with the addition of immunophenotyping or electron microscopic studies (Bennett et al., 1991)....

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  • The need for a comprehensive NCI-wide terminology arose because NCI staff requires access to timely and accurate information about activities related to the scientific mission of the Institute. The collection, storage and retrieval of data related to NCI research programs is necessary to analyze, manage, and report about these activities. Though centralized coding of NCI-supported research-related activities met some of these needs, supplementary data coding had become common.

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  • Why a book on cutaneous vascular proliferations? There are several compelling reasons to justify the existence of a book on this topic. One of the most important is that cutaneous vascular proliferations are exceedingly common and affect a large number of individuals of both sexes and within a wide age range. They make up a broad spectrum of lesions with morphological and biological variations, ranging from hamartomas to highly malignant, aggressive neoplasms.

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  • Immunophenotype and Relevance to the WHO Classification The immunophenotype of human leukemia cells can be studied by multiparameter flow cytometry after the cells are labeled with monoclonal antibodies to cell-surface antigens. This can be important for separating AML from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and identifying some types of AML. For example, AML that is minimally differentiated (immature morphology and no lineage-specific cytochemical reactions) is diagnosed by flow-cytometric demonstration of the myeloid-specific antigens cluster designation (CD) 13 or 33.

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  • Acute leukemia is a proliferation of immature bone marrow-derived cells (blasts) that may also involve peripheral blood or solid organs. The percentage of bone marrow blast cells required for a diagnosis of acute leukemia has traditionally been set arbitrarily at 30% or more. However, more recently proposed classification systems have lowered the blast cell count to 20% for many leukemia types, and do not require any minimum blast cell percentage when certain morphologic and cytogenetic features are present....

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  • Uremia. The red cells in uremia may acquire numerous, regularly spaced, small spiny projections. Such cells, called burr cells or echinocytes, are readily distinguishable from irregularly spiculated acanthocytes shown in Fig. 58-11. Figure 58-11 Spur cells. Spur cells are recognized as distorted red cells containing several irregularly distributed thornlike projections. Cells with this morphologic abnormality are also called acanthocytes. (From Hillman et al.) Reticulocyte Count An accurate reticulocyte count is key to the initial classification of anemia.

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  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were separated from Hodgkin's disease by recognition of the Sternberg-Reed cells early in the twentieth century. The histologic classification for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas has been one of the most contentious issues in oncology. Imperfect morphologic systems were supplanted by imperfect immunologic systems, and poor reproducibility of diagnosis has hampered progress.

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  • Goonatilake and Herath (2007) focus on the effect of news that surfaces throughout the day in the stock market. News stories about publicly traded companies were labeled positive, negative or neutral according to price changes in the company stock. Takahashi, Takahashi, Takahashi and Tsuda (2007) use Naive Bayes classifier for text labeling.They measure stock price change before and after publishing news. They performe a morphological analysis and pattern matching to extract keywords then good, bad and neutral news clusters are created.

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