transport limitation in larger tissue may also affect survival. Due to the macroscopic size of
tissue-engineered products and its finite thermal conductivity, there may be large thermal
gradients from the surface to the interior of the samples. The presence of a thermal gradient
during cooling and warming phases makes it difficult to choose optimal temperature
change protocols for both surface and interior cells. Moreover, osmotic effects (water
movement from inside-unfrozen cells to outside-frozen cells) during cooling, reduces cell
Vibration training and vibration therapy, also known as whole body
vibration (WBV), biomechanical stimulation (BMS), and biomechanical
oscillation (BMO) date back to ancient Greece. Recently, vibration training
has been reinvented as a new form of exercise that is becoming more
frequently used to improve muscle strength, power and flexibility as well
as coordination. Increasingly, WBV can be encountered in different wellness,
fitness and rehabilitation centres as well as medical centres.
There has been a major resurgence in stereotactic neurosurgery for the treatment
of Parkinson’s disease and tremor in the past several years. More recently,
interest has also been rekindled in stereotactic neurosurgery for the treatment of
dystonia and other movement disorders.
When I began research for the Nutrition Almanac in the early seventies, scientific information on health
and nutrition was scarce and difficult to find. In recent years, however, there has been a plethora of studies
and most are easier to access. The database of the National Library of Medicine, for example, lists
over 40,000 articles specifically on alternative medicine.
Alternative therapies focus on the underlying cause.
Chapter 2 - Detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and kinesiology. This chapter presents the following content: Areas of competence, anatomical position, cavities of the body, body movements, biomechanics and kinesiology, nutrition.
The field of biomedical engineering has expanded markedly in the past ten years. This growth
is supported by advances in biological science, which have created new opportunities for
development of tools for diagnosis and therapy for human disease. The discipline focuses
both on development of new biomaterials, analytical methodologies and on the application of
concepts drawn from engineering, computing, mathematics, chemical and physical sciences
to advance biomedical knowledge while improving the effectiveness and delivery of clinical
Common to these episodes is a struggle to manage tensions associated with the (long-
term) movement of accountants into markets that have not been conventionally associated
with their professional expertise and status.
Over the past few decades the field of neurology has seen spectacular developments in diagnostic techniques, most vividly
exemplified by modern neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Although not always at the same speed this evolution has
gone hand in hand with an enlarging armentarium of effective therapies to treat neurological disease.
Like every artistic process, virtual sculpture (see ﬁgure 1 for example), requires a strong
interaction between the artist and his artwork. Feeling the material being modeled enforces
the metaphor of sculpting and the immersion of the user, making the creative activity easier.
The need for haptic feedback is even stronger when the user visualizes his 3D sculpture on
a standard screen: without force feedback, correctly positioning an editing tool with respect
to the sculpture is difﬁcult, since it may require changing the viewpoint several times to
check the tool’s position....
The successful completion of any human physical movement requires the transformation
of chemical energy into mechanical energy in skeletal muscles at rates
appropriate to their needs. The source of this chemical energy is the hydrolysis of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). However, the amount of ATP stored in skeletal muscle
is limited and would only last for a few seconds of contraction. Therefore, the
ATP must be regenerated continuously at the same rate as it is broken down if the
work rate is to be maintained for a prolonged period of time....
Movement disorders represent major causes of neurological disability and
eventual mortality affecting millions of people across the globe. From
Parkinson’s disease to spasticity, these neurological disorders devastate
young and old worldwide. While progress continues to be made toward
effective treatment, many limitations remain.
The combination of the limitation of medical therapy and surgical
technological advances have, however, led to an exponential growth in functional
neurosurgery in the last 5 years.
Ever since their discovery adenoviruses have proven to be a
tremendous asset to biologists. Through the study of the adenoviruses,
we have learned not only about the virus structures, mechanisms of viral
replication, but also about eukaryotic gene expression, alternative splicing,
regulation of cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In the last five years,
there has been an explosion in the use of adenoviruses as vectors for gene
transfer to a variety of mammalian cells.
Antiepilepsy drugs: principles of management; withdrawal of therapy; pregnancy; teratogenic effects; epilepsy in children; status epilepticus • Individual drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, lamotrigine, vigabatrin, gabapentin, clonazepam, topiramate, levetiracetam. • Parkinsonism Objectives of therapy Drug therapy; problems of long-term treatment • Other disorders of movement • Tetanus
cortical neurons simultaneously (primary generalised seizure). Bromide (1857) was the first drug to be used for the treatment of epilepsy, but it is now obsolete.
.Treatment of Pediatric Neurologic Disorders
.NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE AND THERAPY Advisory Board Louis R. Caplan, M.D.
Professor of Neurology Harvard University School of Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts
William C. Koller, M.D.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine New York, New York
John C. Morris, M.D.
Friedman Professor of Neurology Co-Director, Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, Missouri
Bruce Ransom, M.D., Ph.D.
For 250 years, veterinary medicine and its scientific underpinning, veterinary
science, have struggled to gain the confidence and respect of clients, fellow
health scientists and practitioners, and the general public. And it has been
accomplished by means of the scientific method and strict objectivity. To
embrace unproven or even discredited “complementary and alternative” techniques
surely is regressive both for patients and for veterinarians.
What prescription medications are used for fecal incontinence and how do they work? Hyoscyamine (Levbid, NuLev), dicyclomine (Bentyl), clindium, and atropine (Lomotil); opiates such as codeine, cholestyramine (Questran). These drugs produce constipation by slowing the movement of the intestine and promoting increased fluid absorption. When the stools are dry and firm, they are less likely to leak out of the anus.