Multifunctional enzyme

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • Mutation cuả BRCA1, BRCA2 allele thấy trong ung thư vú, buồng trứng và prostate. Các tb có heterozygous BRCA mutations có thể mất wildtype allele, cho nên không sửa chữa được DNA, và vì thế tạo ra ung thư. Theory hiện tại về carcinogenesis cho rằng việc mất wild type allele (DNAREPAIR DEFECT) phải là một giai đoạn bắt buộc trong tiến trình ung thư. PARPs (PolyAdenosine diphosphate Ribose Polymerases) là multifunctional enzymes trong việc sửa chữa gẫy single stranded DNA. ...

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  • It is well established that the intracellular second messenger cADP-ribose (cADPR) activates Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors. CD38 is a multifunctional enzyme involved in the for-mation of cADPR in mammals.

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  • A cDNA encoding a novel plant type III polyketide synthase was cloned and sequenced from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata(Huperzia-ceae). The deduced amino acid sequence ofHu. serratapolyketide synthase 1 showed 44–66% identity to those of other chalcone synthase superfamily enzymes of plant origin.

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  • Human kynurenine aminotransferase I/glutamine trans-aminase K (hKAT-I) is an important multifunctional enzyme. This study systematically studies the substrates of hKAT-I and reassesses the effects of pH, Tris, amino acids anda-keto acids on the activity of the enzyme. The experi-ments were comprised of functional expression of the hKAT-I in an insect cell/baculovirus expression system, purification of its recombinant protein, and functional characterization of the purified enzyme.

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  • GlutathioneS-transferases (EC 2.5.1.18) (GSTs), are a family of multifunctional enzymes present in all living organisms whose main function is the detoxification of electrophilic compounds. GSTs are considered the most prominent detoxifying class II enzymes in helminths. We describehere the characterizationof novel dehydroascorbate reductase and thiol transferase activities that reside in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni GSTx.

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  • Silicateins are unique enzymes of sponges (phylum Porifera) that template and catalyze the polymerization of nanoscale silicate to siliceous skeletal elements. These multifunctional spicules are often elaborately shaped, with complex symmetries.

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  • Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family of Ca 2+ -dependent crosslinking enzymes. Unlike other family members, TG2 is a multifunctional protein, which has several other well documented enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions.

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  • The multifunctional tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has a four-domain structure with several Ca 2+ -regulated biochemical activities, including transglutamylation and GTP hydrolysis. The structure of the Ca 2+ -binding form of the human enzyme is not known, and its Ca 2+ -binding sites have not been fully characterized.

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  • The properties of theD6 desaturase/acetylenase from the mossCeratodon purpureusand theD12 acetylenase from the dicotCrepis alpinawere studied by expressing the encoding genes inArabidopsis thalianaandSaccharomyces cerevisiae. The acetylenase fromC. alpinaD12 desaturated both oleate and linoleate with about equal efficiency. The desaturation of oleate gave rise to 9(Z),12(E)- and 9(Z),12(Z)-octadeca-dienoates in a ratio of approximately 3 : 1.

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