In this paper we present a conﬁdence measure for word alignment based on the posterior probability of alignment links. We introduce sentence alignment conﬁdence measure and alignment link conﬁdence measure. Based on these measures, we improve the alignment quality by selecting high conﬁdence sentence alignments and alignment links from multiple word alignments of the same sentence pair.
Statistical machine translation is often faced with the problem of combining training data from many diverse sources into a single translation model which then has to translate sentences in a new domain. We propose a novel approach, ensemble decoding, which combines a number of translation systems dynamically at the decoding step. In this paper, we evaluate performance on a domain adaptation setting where we translate sentences from the medical domain.
There have been many proposals to extract semantically related words using measures of distributional similarity, but these typically are not able to distinguish between synonyms and other types of semantically related words such as antonyms, (co)hyponyms and hypernyms. We present a method based on automatic word alignment of parallel corpora consisting of documents translated into multiple languages and compare our method with a monolingual syntax-based method.
Multiple studies have attempted to estimate the cost to major weapon system programs of complying with acquisition-related statutes and regulations. Most have investigated the cost of compliance only at the contractor level, though program offices, the Services, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense would also incur such
This study was performed to develop software sensorsto predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple-regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentration, UV light absorbance at 254nm and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluatethe feasibility of the software sensors.
INTRODUCTION In Section 6.3 we developed a recursive least-squares growing memory-ﬁlter for the case where the target trajectory is approximated by a polynomial. In this chapter we develop a recursive least-squares growing-memory ﬁlter that is not restricted to having the target trajectory approximated by a polynomial [5. pp. 461–482]. The only requirement is that Y nÀi , the measurement vector at time n À i, be linearly related to X nÀi in the error-free situation. The Y nÀi can be made up to multiple measurements obtained at the time n À i as in (4.
I will be putting my entire second edition online, while the book goes through the printing process – it will be available at the end of the year. This may seem like a bit of a free lunch, and I guess it is. I hope, though, that you can do me a favor as you go through the manuscript. If you find any mistakes – mathematical or grammatical – could you please let me know? It would help me ensure that the typos do not find their way into the final version.
We would like to dedicate this book to Dr. C. L.
Hwang. Through the course of his academic career,
Dr. Hwang researched and assessed an exhaustive list
of Multiple Attribute, Multiple Objective, and Group
Decision-Making techniques in both the crisp and
fuzzy environments, which are published in six of his
books. Dr. Hwang was an early pioneer in the field
of Decision Science and his contributions to this field
are still realized today in academia and at the heart of
this book. He introduced this area of study
to the authors who worked together with him
for a number of...
Though there may be some controversy about the relative importance of financial incentives in
explaining trends in retirement in the U.S., the larger part of the European studies appear to more
. Most European studies point at strong incentive effects from Social Security and Early
Retirement schemes. This may be due to the strong disincentive effects that characterise most of these
It is the policy of the University to consider membership in organizations that would
promote the advancement of education and research, enhance the professional
standing of its administrative personnel, and facilitate favorable campus-community
It is often in the best interest of the university to consolidate payment of multiple
individual membership fees into a single institutional membership. The Chancellor
retains approval authority for memberships in organizations of universities and
colleges and community organizations.
As reported in the financial statements of each AMC, fund expenses can be divided into
management fees and administrative fees. Expense ratio is the ratio between total fund expenses to
fund’s assets. Administrative or operating expense excluded management fees of AMCs managing
large number of funds are considered to be constant. Thus, when management fee is excluded, fund
expense ratio is lower. Fund expenses excluded management fees indicate fund operation efficiency.
Management fees measures security selection skills of fund manager.
X-ray diffraction is a tool for the investigation of the fine structure of
matter. This technique had its beginnings in von Laue's discovery in 1912
that crystals diffract x-rays, the manner of the diffraction revealing the
structure of the crystal. At first, x-ray diffraction was used only for the
determination of crystal structure.
Why is the market share of accounting measures shrinking,
and can cross-sectional differences in the extent of shrinkage be
explained? Has the information content of accounting
information itself deteriorated, or should we look to more
fundamental changes in the economic environment? For
example, Milliron (2000) documents a significant shift over the
past twenty years in board characteristics measuring director
accountability, independence, and effectiveness consistent with
a general increase in directors’ incentive alignment with
As shown in Table 2, the area of agricultural land worldwide is larger than that
of forests (FAOSTAT Resources 2009). Furthermore, non-wood fibres usually
have high annual biomass yields per hectare which are equal or superior to that
of woods (Pierce 1991). Approximately 30% of the forest area is used primarily
for the production of wood. An additional 24% of the forest area is designated
for multiple uses, which also includes the production of wood in most cases
Using the property transaction data, we compute manager-specific characteristic timing and
characteristic selectivity measures. We use property portfolio index returns at a CBSA level, a state
level, a divisional level, a regional level and at the whole national level. The resulting characteristic
timing and characteristic selectivity measures suggest that the vast majority of both public REIT
and private portfolio managers possess little or even negative ability to successfully time their
investments vis a vis the market regardless of the level of benchmark specialization.
Ensure that system and network administrators are trained and capable. Security testing must be
performed by capable and trained staff. Often, individuals recruited for this task are already involved in
system administration. While system administration is an increasingly complex task, the numbers of
trained system administrators generally has not kept pace with the increase in computing systems.
This report sets out the current state of knowledge on the economics of creativity
and design and their role in driving business performance and productivity. It
was commissioned by the Chancellor in his 2005 Budget. The Department of
Trade and Industry undertook to carry out a study into the 'value and
productivity impact of creativity and design in businesses, helping firms to
identify how creativity can improve their performance'. At the same time, Sir
George Cox was asked to review how best to support and develop the creativity
of small and medium sized enterprises in the UK....
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: A tool to measure the attributes of receiving IV therapy in a home versus hospital setting: the Multiple Sclerosis Relapse Management Scale (MSRMS)
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Interpreting scores on multiple sclerosis-specific patient reported outcome measures (the PRIMUS and U-FIS)
There is no direct gold standard evidence or specific UK or European consensus guidelines for
monitoring the growth of children with moderate to severe renal disease. This document therefore
aims to define minimum standards for measuring and monitoring growth in children with CKD, based
on local expert opinion, international committee reports, and indirectly supportive peer-reviewed
clinical trials and reviews.