The MA, which focused on ecosystem change and
the impacts of such change on human well-being, included
a set of sub-global assessments at multiple
spatial scales, in addition to the global assessment.
This was one of the innovations of the MA compared to
other international assessments, which usually focus on
global or regional scales alone. The global and sub-global
assessments analyzed ecosystem services and human wellbeing
from different perspectives and with different stakeholders
Foreword for Cary Conference X, “Ecosystem Function in Heterogeneous
Among the most difficult problems in the life sciences is the challenge to
understand the details of how ecosystems/watersheds/landscapes function.
Yet, the welfare of all life, not just the human species, depends upon the successful
functioning of diverse and complicated ecosystems, each with various
dimensions and compositions.
Alterations to fire regimes have resulted in many changes to
the biological communities including changes in vegetation
composition and structure and vegetation type conversions
or ecosystem migrations. This text details many of these
changes, explains how fire has changed as an ecosystem
process, and provides insights for determining the direction
that the changes might take in the future.