Since the advent of the all-volunteer force, the U.S. Air Force has struggled with how best to attract and retain physicians and dentists. Both populations have declined in recent years. Multiyear Special Pay (MSP) is intended to keep physicians and dentists in the Air Force after their initial service obligations have expired.
This volume is part of a multiyear research program on Behavioral Responses
to Taxation that is being conducted under the auspices of the National Bureau
of Economic Research (NBER). This project draws together researchers with
a wide range of interests in tax policy issues. The development and mainte-
nance of the NBER TAXSIM program, a detailed computer algorithm for com-
puting household tax liabilities under actual and various alternative tax re-
gimes, is one of the centerpieces of this research project. Many of the research
When we published the first edition of Paying for Performance in 1997, the business
climate was very different than it is today. At that time, the U.S. financial markets were in the midst of an unprecedented multiyear boom. Many established
companies were delivering record profits, but perhaps more important, a
myriad of “new economy” marvels were rewriting long-standing rules about the relationship between earnings and market value, the relative importance of
growth and profitability, and the definition of what constitutes successful business performance.
Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
In the box published in October, we focused primarily on forecasts made for European
economies in early 2010. The reason was simple: A number of large multiyear fiscal
consolidation plans were announced then, particularly in Europe, and conditions for larger-
than-normal multipliers were ripe.
First, because of the binding zero lower bound on nominal interest rates, central banks could
not cut interest rates to offset the negative short-term effects of a fiscal consolidation on
Figure 8 shows our multiyear forecast
of General Fund and Education Protection
Account (EPA) revenues, including revenues
resulting from the two tax-related measures
that voters approved at the statewide election
on November 6, 2012. These two measures are
Proposition 30 (which increases personal income
tax [PIT] rates for higher-income Californians
through 2018 and raises the sales and use tax
[SUT] rates by 0.
In an effort to inform preschool policy in California, an interdisciplinary team of RAND researchers conducted a multiyear study of preschool education known as the California Preschool Study. One of the recommendations from that study was the need for a more in-depth analysis of the effectiveness...
The term reform-oriented teaching describes a collection of instructional practices that are designed to engage students as active participants in their own learning and to enhance the development of complex cognitive skills and processes. This monograph presents the findings of a multiyear National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded
Some public broadcasters are better funded and operated than others. Our survey
highlights the notable strengths of public media systems in the U.K., Germany and
Scandinavian countries. In contrast, due to erosion in both the amount of funding and
procedures for assuring “arms-length” autonomy from direct governmental control (shift
from license fee to direct government funding, shift from multiyear to annual funding,
etc.), public media have arguably been weakened in recent years in the Netherlands,
Canada, New Zealand, and Australia.