Sustainability in natural systems is built on the closed-end process of recycling materials. Our present society produces so much that is not recyclable, like resin-molded chairs and air polluting automobile tires, that it is necessary to apply intention to source reduction and product responsibility. Chapter 18 provides knowledge of municipal solid waste and how to disposal and recovery.
Solid Waste Management is one of the essential obligatory functions of the Urban Local Bodies/Municipal Corporation. This service is falling too short of the desired level of efficiency and satisfaction resulting in problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation. Due to lack of serious efforts by town/city authorities, garbage and its management has become a tenacious problem.
This is the fourth in the series of volumes I have prepared for Ventus Publishing. There are a number of
factors which have contributed to my decision to develop the series. One is that, as I said in the postscript
to one of the earlier volumes, I am at a career stage where my time is possibly best spent setting out
knowledge and ideas I have built up over the decades for the benefit of younger readers. BookBoon
provides a splendid medium for this. That is why I very much hope that this fourth in the series will be by
no means the last even...
A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of composting of source
separated organic matter of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in low, middle and high
income areas of Karachi city with a population over 14 million. Results of MSW analysis indicate
the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter (71-74%), acceptable moisture
content (40-50%) and C/N ratio (38-40:1). On windrow composting, not only the volume of
waste was reduced but also produced a crumbly earthy smelling soil-like, compost material.
Landfill gas from a source of green energy, clean, renewable and can be used to create
electricity, or used in the energy industry. This paper reviews the potential energy recovery
landfill gas from municipal solid waste, to reducing methane emissions in particular, and reduced
greenhouse gas emissions in general. In addition, this paper provides an assessment using the model of
methane generated from landfill municipal solid waste and generate energy potential of gas recovered.
In particular, this paper uses a life cycle assessment methods ......
The addition of clay in the form of bauxite refining residue (red mud) prior to composting has been suggested as a way to control heavy metal mobility in compost. Leachability and plant availability of metals in a mixture of grass clippings and sawdust spiked with metal solution was markedly reduced during the composting process.
Australia, Australia (First received October 1995; accepted in revisedform September 1996) Abstract--Sewage sludge usually contains significant heavy metals that may limit its land application. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste have been shown to be less mobile by amendment with bauxite refining residue (red mud) prior to the composting process.
The presence of chlorine in alternative fuels (e.g., sewage sludge, municipal solid waste
or incineration ash, chlorinated biomass,) has both direct and indirect implications on
cement kiln emissions and performance. Methods have been developed to properly
manage chlorine and its potential implications – but it is important that these implications
be recognized and managed. Trace levels of chlorine in feed materials can lead to the
formation of acidic gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF)
Significant flexibility is achieved when combining a non-
condensing turbine with a condensing steam turbine, or when a
steam turbine supplies controlled pressure steam to more than one
process header. This is accomplished with a single- or double-auto
extraction condensing steam turbine generator. (See Figure 6.)
Figure 9 illustrates a performance map (flow vs. kilowatt output) for
a single auto extraction steam turbine generator. This generic
performance map applies equally to single-auto non-condensing
and to single-auto condensing steam turbine generators.
One of the more promising processes for the energetic transformation of waste is the anaerobic digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. An experimental campaign was carried out on three different samples of OFMSW from Waste Separation, one as received and two obtained after mechanical treatment: OFMSW slurry (liquid fraction) and OFMSW Waste. Anaerobic Biogasification Potential and anaerobic digestion tests were carried out, investigating the effects of inoculum and pH. The OFMSW Waste was also examined to evaluate the possibility to dispose of it in a landfill.
Despite its significant role in bone adaptation, its detailed structure
remains elusive: light microscopy can barely detect the entire
jungle at the best resolution, let alone individual fibers in the matrix
surrounding the cell. Wang’s team relies on a bioimaging approach
called Fluorescence recovery After Photobleaching to measure
how fast a small fluorescent dye and a relatively large protein move
through the pericellular matrix. The researchers record differential
speeds of the large and small molecules.