Myeloproliferative disease

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 103.

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  • Complications The major clinical complications of PV relate directly to the increase in blood viscosity associated with red cell mass elevation and indirectly to the increased turnover of red cells, leukocytes, and platelets with the attendant increase in uric acid and cytokine production. The latter appears to be responsible for the increase in peptic ulcer disease and for the pruritus associated with this disorder, although formal proof for this has not been obtained. A sudden massive increase in spleen size can be associated with splenic infarction or progressive cachexia.

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  • Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis Chronic IMF (other designations include agnogenic myeloid metaplasia or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia) is a clonal disorder of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell of unknown etiology characterized by marrow fibrosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and splenomegaly. Chronic IMF is the least common chronic myeloproliferative disorder, and establishing this diagnosis in the absence of a specific clonal marker is difficult because myelofibrosis and splenomegaly are also features of both PV and CML.

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  • Complications Perhaps no other condition in clinical medicine has caused otherwise astute physicians to intervene inappropriately more often than thrombocytosis, particularly if the platelet count is 1 x 106/µL. It is commonly believed that a high platelet count causes intravascular stasis and thrombosis; however, no controlled clinical study has ever established this association, and in patients younger than age 60, the incidence of thrombosis was not greater in patients with thrombocytosis than in age-matched controls.

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  • Diagnosis When PV presents with erythrocytosis in combination with leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, or both, the diagnosis is apparent. However, when patients present with an elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit alone, or with thrombocytosis alone, the diagnostic evaluation is more complex because of the many diagnostic possibilities (Table 103-2). Furthermore, unless the hemoglobin level is ≥20 gm% (hematocrit ≥60%), it is not possible to distinguish PV from disorders causing plasma volume contraction.

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  • The etiology of PV is unknown. Although nonrandom chromosome abnormalities such as 20q, trisomy 8, and especially 9p, have been documented in up to 30% of untreated PV patients, unlike CML no consistent cytogenetic abnormality has been associated with the disorder. However, a mutation in the autoinhibitory, pseudokinase domain of the tyrosine kinase JAK2—which replaces valine with phenylalanine (V617F), causing constitutive activation of the kinase— appears to have a central role in the pathogenesis of PV.

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  • This marrow section shows the marrow cavity replaced by fibrous tissue composed of reticulin fibers and collagen. When this fibrosis is due to a primary hematologic process, it is called myelofibrosis. When the fibrosis is secondary to a tumor or a granulomatous process, it is called myelophthisis. Diagnosis While the clinical picture described above is characteristic of chronic IMF, all of the clinical features described can also be observed in PV or CML.

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  • Table 103-4 Risk Stratification for Idiopathic Myelofibrosis A. Prognostic factorsa Hemoglobin 30,000/µL Number of prognostic factors Risk group Median survival (months) 0 Low 93 1–2 High 17 B. Prognostic factorsb Hemoglobin 1% Number of prognostic factors Risk group Median survival (months) 0–1 Low 99 2–3 High 21 C.

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  • Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis: Treatment No specific therapy exists for chronic IMF. Anemia may be due to gastrointestinal blood loss and exacerbated by folic acid deficiency, and in rare instances, pyridoxine therapy has been effective. However, anemia is more often due to ineffective erythropoiesis uncompensated by extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and liver. Neither recombinant erythropoietin nor androgens, such as Danazol, have proved consistently effective as therapy for anemia.

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  • Etiology Megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production depend upon thrombopoietin and its receptor, Mpl. As in the case of early erythroid and myeloid progenitor cells, early megakaryocytic progenitors require the presence of interleukin 3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor for optimal proliferation in addition to thrombopoietin. Their subsequent development is also enhanced by the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1). However, megakaryocyte maturation and differentiation require thrombopoietin.

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  • The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the chronic myeloproliferative diseases includes seven disorders, some of which are rare or poorly characterized (Table 103-1) but all of which share an origin in a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell, overproduction of one or more of the formed elements of the blood without significant dysplasia, a predilection to extramedullary hematopoiesis, myelofibrosis, and transformation at varying rates to acute leukemia. Within this broad classification, however, significant phenotypic heterogeneity exists. ...

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  • Bài giảng Những rối loạn tăng sinh tủy (Myeloproliferative neoplasms) trình bày những nội dung chính như: Bạch cầu mạn dòng tủy (chronic myelogenous leukemia: CML), đa hồng cầu nguyên phát (Polycythemia vera: PV), tăng tiểu cầu nguyên phát (Essential thrombocythemia: ET), tăng tiểu cầu nguyên phát (Essential thrombocythemia: ET). Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.

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  • This book is written for veterinary medical students as a primer for their clinical years and should also be of benefit beyond graduation. As the title suggests, our aim is to highlight the essential relationship between tissue diseases, their pathophysiologic consequences and clinical expression. The book is designed to emphasize the principles of organ system dysfunction, providing a foundation on which to build.

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  • Disorders of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System Many disorders of neutrophils extend to mononuclear phagocytes. Thus, drugs that suppress neutrophil production in the bone marrow can cause monocytopenia. Transient monocytopenia occurs after stress or glucocorticoid administration. Monocytosis is associated with tuberculosis, brucellosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, malaria, and visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar).

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  • Hematologic Syndromes: Introduction The elevation of granulocyte, platelet, and eosinophil counts in most patients with myeloproliferative disorders is caused by the proliferation of the myeloid elements due to the underlying disease rather than a paraneoplastic syndrome. The paraneoplastic hematologic syndromes in patients with solid tumors are less well characterized than the endocrine syndromes because the ectopic hormone(s) or cytokines responsible have not been identified in most of these tumors (Table 96-2).

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