Nanocrystalline materials

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  • This book is a text on novel nanocrystalline alloys and magnetic nanomaterials arising out of presentations given at the fourth Oxford–Kobe Materials Seminar, held at the Kobe Institute on 11–14 September 2001. The Kobe Institute is an independent non profit-making organization. It was established by donations from Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture and more than 100 companies all over Japan.

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  • The importance of crystalline silicon and the emergence of nanocrystalline material are heading towards miniaturization of silicon based devices. The entire device technology is getting a radical transformation through bottom up approach and corresponding increase in density of integration that is a challenge in processes and materials via top down approach.

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  • Nanocrystalline materials have been the subject of widespread research over the past couple of decades with significant advancement in their understanding especially in the last few years [3]. As the name suggests, they are single or multi-phase polycrystals with nano scale (1 · 109 –250 · 109 m) grain size. At the upper limit of this regime, the term ‘‘ultra- fine grain size’’ is often used (grain sizes of 250–1000 nm).

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  • The process, as described in step (c) is repeated for a shorter time to expose the bottom silicon surface for further dry etching, as shown in Fig. 9(g). In order to expose sidewalls for the wet etch release, the structure is deepened using a similar multi-step dry etch process as described in step (d), except that low energy, high pressure isotropic dry etching is used instead of high energy, high pressure to preserve the less robust silicon dioxide that had taken the place of Cr as the etch mask. This deepening of the structure determines the gap between the...

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  • The landmark paper by Gleiter [1] redirected a significant portion of the global research efforts in materials science. The importance of this paper can be gauged by its 1300+ cita- tions and the thousands of papers that appeared on this topic since its publication. Actually, this paper was preceded by an earlier, lesser known Gleiter paper, from 1983 [2]. In this paper, Gleiter points out the outstanding possibilities of what he called then ‘‘microcrystalline materials’’. The name ‘‘nanocrystalline’’ has since taken over.

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  • In Design of high density transformers for high frequency high power converters, the abovementioned issues of high-frequency transformers are explored, particularly in regards to high-power converter applications. Loss calculations accommodating resonant operating waveform and Litz wire windings are explored. Leakage inductance modeling for large-number-of-stand Litz wire windings is proposed. The optimal design procedure based on the models is developed.

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  • Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a non-destructive technique to characterize optical and electronic properties of nanostructures in many kinds of materials. Major subject is to investigate basic parameters in semiconductors, impurities in oxides and phase determination of minerals. CL is similar to photoluminescence (PL) technique, but the excitation by high energy electrons can produce all the transition to the higher energy excitation states and induce light emission in the wide energy range concerned with versatile types of electronic transitions in materials....

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  • A three gram oven-dried sample of holocellulose was placed in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask with a small watch glass cover. The flasks were placed into water bath that was maintained at 20 o C. The sample was then treated with 50 mL of 17.5 percent NaOH and thoroughly mixed for one minute. After the specimen was allowed to react with the solution for 29 minutes, 50 mL of distilled water was added and mixed well for another minute. The reaction continued for five more minutes. The contents of the flask were filtered by aid of...

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  • Wang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:241 NANO EXPRESS Open Access High-quality reduced graphene oxidenanocrystalline platinum hybrid materials prepared by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide and chloroplatinic acid Yinjie Wang, Jincheng Liu*, Lei Liu, Darren Delai Sun* Abstract Reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum (RGO-Pt) hybrid materials were synthesized by simultaneous coreduction of graphene oxide (GO) and chloroplatinic acid with sodium citrate in water at 80°C, of pH 7 and 10.

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  • In this paper, materials of ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Mn and ZnO:Co were prepared by ceramic method and co-precipitated method. The presence of transition metals such as Cu2+(3d9), Mn2+(3d5) in ZnS and Co2+(3d7) in ZnO make blue bands at around 476 nm, 486 nm and green band at around 514 nm disappeared. Simultaneously, there are luminescence bands at around 533 nm, 582 nm, 693 nm for bulk samples of ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Mn, ZnO:Co and 603 nm for nanocrystalline sample of ZnS:Mn.

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