Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range,
can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk
systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles,
quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in
the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology
In contrast to our previous study (Barth & Marx, 2008) dealing with a currently decreasing
research field (high-temperature superconductors) we analyzed here a topic which has
raised a strongly increasing interest among researchers: research activities around carbon
nanotubes (CNTs or NTs). Carbon nanotubes (often named only nanotubes) are graphite
sheets rolled up into cylinders with diameters of the order of a few nanometers and up to
some millimeters in length with at least one end capped with a hemisphere of the fullerene
Nanotechnology has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, mostly because of
the rapid advances in nano-fabrication techniques employed to fabricate the nanodevices.
Nano-fabrication can be divided into two categories: the first is the so-called
“bottom up” approach, in which nano-structures are created either by chemical synthesis
of nano-wires, nanotubes and nano-particles, or by self-assembly of nano-objects or thin
layers to form quasi-periodic arrays or phase separation patterns....
Cd1-xMnxS nanoparticles (NPs) with size quantum confinement belong to the diluted
magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum dot (QD) class of materials that has been widely
studied in the last few years. The study of quasi-zero-dimensional Diluted Magnetic
Semiconductors (DMS), such as Cd1-xMnxS Quantum Dots (QDs), is strongly motivated due
to the localization of magnetic ions in the same places as the free-like electron and hole
carriers occurring in these nanomaterials [1,2].
Private health insurance has offered a primary source of coverage for population groups
ineligible to public programmes, and contributed to provide insurance protection against other public
system coverage gaps. It has helped to inject resources into health systems, enabling an expansion in
capacity and services. It also enhanced access to timely care in some systems experiencing prolonged
public sector waiting times.
As deregulation and liberalisation has led to the emergence of global financial
markets, banks expanded their international operations and moved into multiple lines
of financial business. They developed complex risk management strategies that have
allowed them to price financial products and hedge their risk exposures in a manner
that improves expected profits, but which may generate more risk and increase
liquidity problems in certain circumstances.
The growing awareness of organisations of the need to have information systems for management
purposes is related to their own need to coexist in a permanently changing environment, not only
physically but also technologically, socially and financially (Caplan, 1971). This situation became
more accentuated over the 1980s and 1990s, owing to the processes of market internationalisation and
globalisation (Roberts and Hunt, 1991).
This review highlights the importance of play, particularly outdoor play, for increasing levels
of physical activity, alongside other positive influences on a child’s well-being, such as
opportunities to understand and respect the natural world. However, children seem to be
getting fewer opportunities to play. A combination of poor play environments, busy school
schedules and an increase in structured activities has meant that this beneficial and basic
children’s right has become sidelined, often perceived as an ‘unaffordable luxury’ (Elkind
Nanomaterials, which are materials with structural units on a nanometer scale in at least one direction,
is the fastest growing area in materials science and engineering. Material properties become different
on the nanoscale: for example, the theoretical strength of materials can be reached or quantum effects
may appear. One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional materials such as nanotubes and nanowires
demonstrate many extreme properties that can be tuned by controlling their structure and diameter.
2D nanomaterials such as graphene and transition metal dichal cogenides (TMDCS) have shown outstanding potential in many ﬁelds such as ﬂ exible electronics, sensing and optics due to their desirable physical and structural properties. High quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid phase exfoliation include Experimental Section; Supporting Information and Acknowledgements.