Nanomaterials structure

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  • Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range, can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology of nanomaterials.

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  • In contrast to our previous study (Barth & Marx, 2008) dealing with a currently decreasing research field (high-temperature superconductors) we analyzed here a topic which has raised a strongly increasing interest among researchers: research activities around carbon nanotubes (CNTs or NTs). Carbon nanotubes (often named only nanotubes) are graphite sheets rolled up into cylinders with diameters of the order of a few nanometers and up to some millimeters in length with at least one end capped with a hemisphere of the fullerene structure....

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  • Nanotechnology has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, mostly because of the rapid advances in nano-fabrication techniques employed to fabricate the nanodevices. Nano-fabrication can be divided into two categories: the first is the so-called “bottom up” approach, in which nano-structures are created either by chemical synthesis of nano-wires, nanotubes and nano-particles, or by self-assembly of nano-objects or thin layers to form quasi-periodic arrays or phase separation patterns....

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  • Cd1-xMnxS nanoparticles (NPs) with size quantum confinement belong to the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum dot (QD) class of materials that has been widely studied in the last few years. The study of quasi-zero-dimensional Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS), such as Cd1-xMnxS Quantum Dots (QDs), is strongly motivated due to the localization of magnetic ions in the same places as the free-like electron and hole carriers occurring in these nanomaterials [1,2].

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  • Private health insurance has offered a primary source of coverage for population groups ineligible to public programmes, and contributed to provide insurance protection against other public system coverage gaps. It has helped to inject resources into health systems, enabling an expansion in capacity and services. It also enhanced access to timely care in some systems experiencing prolonged public sector waiting times.

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  • As deregulation and liberalisation has led to the emergence of global financial markets, banks expanded their international operations and moved into multiple lines of financial business. They developed complex risk management strategies that have allowed them to price financial products and hedge their risk exposures in a manner that improves expected profits, but which may generate more risk and increase liquidity problems in certain circumstances.

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  • The growing awareness of organisations of the need to have information systems for management purposes is related to their own need to coexist in a permanently changing environment, not only physically but also technologically, socially and financially (Caplan, 1971). This situation became more accentuated over the 1980s and 1990s, owing to the processes of market internationalisation and globalisation (Roberts and Hunt, 1991).

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  • This review highlights the importance of play, particularly outdoor play, for increasing levels of physical activity, alongside other positive influences on a child’s well-being, such as opportunities to understand and respect the natural world. However, children seem to be getting fewer opportunities to play. A combination of poor play environments, busy school schedules and an increase in structured activities has meant that this beneficial and basic children’s right has become sidelined, often perceived as an ‘unaffordable luxury’ (Elkind 2008).

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  • Nanomaterials, which are materials with structural units on a nanometer scale in at least one direction, is the fastest growing area in materials science and engineering. Material properties become different on the nanoscale: for example, the theoretical strength of materials can be reached or quantum effects may appear. One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional materials such as nanotubes and nanowires demonstrate many extreme properties that can be tuned by controlling their structure and diameter.

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  • 2D nanomaterials such as graphene and transition metal dichal  cogenides (TMDCS) have shown outstanding potential in many fields such as fl exible electronics, sensing and optics due to their desirable physical and structural properties. High quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid phase exfoliation include Experimental Section; Supporting Information and Acknowledgements.

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