Chapter 2 - Worldwide accounting diversity. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Provide evidence of the diversity that exists in accounting internationally, explain the problems caused by accounting diversity, describe the major environmental factors that influence national accounting systems and lead to accounting diversity,...
Chapter 2 - Worldwide accounting diversity. Learning objectives of this chapter include: Provide evidence of the diversity that exists in accounting internationally, explain the problems caused by accounting diversity, describe the major environmental factors that influence national accounting systems and lead to accounting diversity,...
administrative expenses, being treated as period costs.
ABSORPTION VARIANCE is the variance from budgeted absorption costing of manufactured product. See also ABSORPTION COSTING.
ACAT (Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation) is a national organization established in 1973 as a non-profit independent testing, accrediting and monitoring organization. The Council seeks to identify professionals in independent practice who specialize in providing financial, accounting and taxation services to individuals and small to mid-size businesses.
A&E can mean either Appropriation & Expense or Analysis & Evaluation. : Có thể được hiểu là Riêng biệt và Chi phí hoặc Phân tích và Ước lượng A&G is Adminstrative & General. : Quản trị và Tổng quát A&M is Additions and Maintenance. :Thêm vào và Bảo trì A&P is an acronym for Administrative and Personnel.
The last quarter-century has seen increasing awareness of
the interactions between human societies and the natural
environment in which they thrive and upon which they
depend. This awareness has been heightened by concerns
about resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and
global environmental issues. The combination of increased
awareness of the environment and recognition of the
primitive state of much of the nation’s environmental data has led to a
widespread desire to supplement U.S. national economic accounts to include
natural resources and environmental assets.
If your account has been compromised—or hacked—it means that someone stole your password and might be using your account to access your personal information or send spam. To recover your account and prevent it from being hacked again, follow these steps.
Auditors would be regulated under a system which mirrors that of the audit of companies with a role for the Financial Reporting Council and the professional audit bodies. We envisage that the National Audit Office will set the code of audit practice and we have put forward options for the scope of audit in the new framework. The consultation document also sets out how transparency will be increased in the new framework and our proposals for auditing smaller bodies with a turnover below £6.5m in a proportionate way.
· Learn more about the subject, by reading and where possible by talking to others with
experience in the area. This learning should cover the purpose of the accounts, the policy
questions which they could answer, the different methods for structuring them, and so on.
· Bring together the key players in the country and help them learn about the subject.
· Select an institution to carry out the initial accounting work. While in the long run
environmental accounts are likely to come under the purview of those responsible for
national accounting, often those groups are unwilling to initiate the work because it is
perceived as too experimental. Instead, initial work may be carried out by environment
departments, government-affiliated research groups, or other players who have a strong
stake in the outcome but take less risk by putting their name on experimental work.
These accounts measure the capacity or potential
of ecosystems to deliver ecosystem services in a
sustainable way. Typical indicators are Landscape
Ecosystem Potential (LEP), Green Accessible
Landscape Infrastructure (GALI) and Rivers
Ecosystem Potential (REP).
However, the survey showed a divide between how financial professionals in the east and west spend
their working hours. In the east, accounting operations take up the greatest portion of their time (25%),
while in the west the balance shifts to management accounting as their biggest role (24%), on average.
Time spent for management support is similar between the two groups (17% and 20%), although the
accountants in the west report a greater focus here as part of their portfolio of roles.
The ecosystem accounting framework presented
here is being tested in the context of an open Europe
taking stock of its relations to the rest of the world.
Because ecosystem accounts are deep-rooted into
monitoring databases, implementation presently
focuses on physical accounts. Monetary valuations,
the adjustment of national accounts aggregates for
income and final consumption, and the calculation
of ecological debts, are foreseen in subsequent
steps within the same logical framework.
The spread of democracy to amajority of the world’s states and the legit-
imization of the use of force by multilateral institutions such as NATO
and the UNhave been two key developments since the Second World
War. In the last decade these developments have become intertwined,
as multilateral forces moved from traditional peacekeeping to peace en-
forcement among warring parties.
Bushman, Chen, Engel, and Smith (2000) extend this
research to consider a larger range of governance mechanisms.
The governance mechanisms considered include board
composition, stockholdings of inside and outside directors,
ownership concentration, and the structure of executive
compensation. They conjecture that to the extent that current
earnings fail to incorporate current value-relevant
information, the accounting numbers are less effective in the
· Net benefit vs. user cost method of calculating depletion. These are two different
methods for estimating the depletion of natural capital. The net benefit method is much
simpler than the user cost method, and therefore has been used widely. It is considered
technically incorrect by economists; however, those who use it feel that despite its
inaccuracy it offers an acceptable proxy value for depletion.
· Inclusion of "maintenance costs." Maintenance costs are the expenditures that a country
would have to make in order for its use of the environment to be sustainable.
· Disaggregated regional or local data about the environment, sometimes linked to a
geographic information system. Questions often arise about the scale of environmental
data; do they pertain to a village, a province, a watershed, or the whole country? Because
the SNA is national, and most countries maintain their economic data at the national
(rather than the regional or local) level, environmental accounts are primarily national
accounts. For example, they might tell us how much energy was consumed nationwide,
not how much was consumed in each village or province.
· Namibia is carrying out a phased testing and implementation of the SEEA approach to
environmental accounting. It is focused on several key natural resource sectors, and is
designed to answer such questions as how to allocate water among competing uses and
how land degradation affects the productivity of rangeland.
· The Netherlands routinely constructs the "National Accounting Matrix Including
Environmental Accounts" (NAMEA), an extended form of the national accounts
input/output matrix which tracks pollution emissions by economic sector.
Our paper focuses on accounting professionals in Romania as being a
significant element when considering a national accounting system
that went through complex accounting reforms of more than two
decades. Since accounting policy represents an area of social and
economic policy we must also consider the five decades of communist
regime leaving their fingerprint on the Romanian society. It is our
objective to capture the perception of the Romanian accounting
profession that actually witnessed all these processes of
The need to account for natural resources as capital,
in the same way as we account for economic and
financial resources, is getting more and more
attention. The recently published EU Roadmap for a
Resource Efficient Europe sets the policy framework
for action in the coming years and decades for which
robust data and indicators are needed.
In this respect, there is a contrast between the
natural resources which are recorded by the System
of National Accounts 2008, the basis for GDP, and
other natural resources which are ignored because
they are not seen as economic assets by the market.