Forty years ago, Congress asked the National Academies Committee on
Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)—the only joint policy
committee of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of
Engineering, and Institute of Medicine—to look at the relationship between basic
research and national goals. That request, from the House Committee on Science
and Astronautics in 1964, resulted in the report Basic Research and National Goals.
The U.S. air transportation system is vital to the economic well-being and security of the United
States. To support continued U.S. leadership in aviation, Congress and NASA requested that the National
Research Council undertake a decadal survey of civil aeronautics research and technology (R&T) priorities
that would help NASA fulfill its responsibility to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics technology.
In 2006, the National Research Council published the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics.
In mid-1999 representatives of the Chinese Academy of Engineering
(CAE) visited the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) to explore the
prospects for collaboration between the two institutions on a study of the
future of the personal car in China. This is the second instance of formal
collaboration between the CAE and the NRC. The outcome of the first
was a study entitled Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the
United States, published in 2001, in which the Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Deep Space Communications and Navigation Systems Center of
Excellence (DESCANSO) was established in 1998 by the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA) at the California Institute of Technology’s
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). DESCANSO is chartered to harness and
promote excellence and innovation to meet the communications and navigation
needs of future deep-space exploration.
Dấu ngoặc vuông [ ] - square brackets • Dấu ngoặc vuông được dùng bao quanh những phần thông tin
ở trong dấu ngoặc tròn.
Brandi planned to work as an aeronautic
engineer (she completed an internship at
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
[NASA]) as soon as she completed her doctoral
Physics in a New Era: An Overview is the culmination of the National
Research Council survey series Physics in a New Era. The survey was proposed
by the Board on Physics and Astronomy, continuing the tradition of
periodic reviews of physics by the National Research Council. The overview
is the final volume of the survey and was welcomed and supported by
the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration.
But there is another potential impact for the
environment and nature conservation which
is a much more positive one. The 1999
structural fund regulations for the first time
recognised that the funds could be used
for the protection and improvement of the
environment (emphasis added). This change
in wording was extremely significant – for
the first time the doors were open to local
and regional authorities and national governments
to start putting forward environmental
and nature programme proposals which
meet the European Union’s cohesion policy
objectives set out in the Treaty.
In August 1999, the Transportation Research Board (TRB) held a workshop at the
request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine its
Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) concept.
Intensity of use of freshwater resources (both
surface and groundwater) is expressed as gross
abstractions per capita, as a percentage of
total available renewable freshwater resources,
including inflows from neighbouring countries
(see below) and as a percentage of internal
resources. It has to be noted that when measured
at national level these indicators may hide
significant variations at territorial level.
Wastewater treatment connection rates show the
percentage of the national population actually
connected to public waste water treatment
This report was originally released in December 2004 in prepublication form
as the first report of a two-phase study to be carried out by the same committee.
The first phase was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) and focused on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
(TRMM). The second phase was sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration and focused on the Global Precipitation Measurement
mission. The report of the second phase will be published in a separate volume
Advances in the capabilities of technologies applicable to
distributed networking, telecommunications, multi-user
computer applications, and interactive virtual reality are
creating opportunities for users in the same or separate locations
to engage in interdependent, cooperative activities
using a common computer-based environment.
Just one example suffices here to corroborate our approach of cautious
optimism with regard to the immediate future of the media in the Arab world.
Our study confirmed that even though the region’s print media had to go through
significant structural changes in these trying times, it has weathered the storm
much better than other markets, with the overall daily circulation and the
number of titles continuing to rise. The new media laws that came into being in
several countries have helped this growth considerably.
The last edition of the report came out soon after the onset of the global
financial crisis, leaving out little scope for incorporating a detailed analysis of
its impact on the media industry. We have tried to more than compensate for
that in the present edition, providing a much more focused assessment of the
media industry against the backdrop of the financial meltdown. The impact of
the crisis, needless to say, varies from country to country, depending on the
extent to which each market is exposed to global markets.
In response to a request from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National
Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space
Sciences in the summer of 2004 to conduct a study of Principal-Investigator (PI)-led missions in the space
sciences. (Appendix A includes brief biographies of the committee members and staff.
This is the second National Council on Radiation Protection and
Measurements (NCRP) report that provides radiation protection
guidance for astronauts working in low-earth orbit. The guidance in
this Report supercedes the radiation exposure limit recommendations
provided in NCRP Report No. 98 that was published in 1989.
Readers may find some of the radiobiological information in Report
No. 98 to continue to be relevant and of interest and, therefore,
Report No. 98 will continue to be available from NCRP Publications.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration asked the Board on Science,
Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) to hold a one-day symposium to
review the NASA Ames Research Center’s plans to develop a science and technology
In 1985, perchlorate contamination was discovered at Superfund sites in
California; however, the extent of perchlorate contamination of water
sources nationwide was not revealed until 1997. Today, over 11 million
people have perchlorate in their public drinking-water supplies at concentrations
of 4 ppb (4 :g/L) or higher.
Main technical issues to be resolved before greater implementation of aluminum alloys
in ship structures include weld quality since these alloys are more difficult to weld
relative to steel and that shipyards typically have limited experience in these alloys. In
terms of mechanical properties, aluminum alloys generally exhibit lower fatigue
strength when compared to steel. As-welded fatigue properties can be as low as 6 to 7
ksi (Czyryca et al 2006).