According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take
a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the
second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers
fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In
recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although
the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been
twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for
ten of the top 15 cancers in women.
The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer is a medical reference
product designed to inform and educate readers
about a wide variety of cancers, treatments, diagnostic
procedures, side effects, and cancer drugs. The Gale
Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but
not necessarily definitive. It is intended to supplement,
not replace, consultation with a physician or other
health care practitioner.
Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical
roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated
that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective
effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept
of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition
of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the
US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.
Table 86-2 5-Year Survival Rate for Breast Cancer by Stage
5-Year Survival, %
Source: Modified from data of the National Cancer Institute—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER).
Estrogen and progesterone receptor status are of prognostic significance. Tumors that lack either or both of these receptors are more likely to recur than tumors that have them.
Several measures of tumor growth rate correlate with early relapse. S-phase analysis using flow cytometry is the most accurate measure.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Retrovirology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick...
Clinical trials enable scientific discoveries to advance patient care, and
they also inform and guide subsequent research. The National Cancer Institute
(NCI) supports the largest U.S. network of clinical trials of any type, of
which the largest component is the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program
(informally known as the Cooperative Group Program). It currently
comprises 10 Groups that involve more than 3,100 institutions and 14,000
investigators who enroll more than 25,000 patients in clinical trials each
This publication is the product of a comprehensive consultation undertaken by WHO in 2001 involving leading experts in the field of cancer epidemiology, screening and treatment. It is part of WHO's commitment to provide evidence-based guidelines to decision makers, and a recognition of the priority that should be given to cervical cancer screening and treatment as an essential component of any comprehensive national cancer control program. The report focuses particularly on the situation in low and middle income countries - countries in......
Countless organizations have their own intricate and well-developed thesauri that have been refined over many
years. With consummate converters, these thesauri can become a strong and useful element on the semantic web.
Like the Thésaurus from the National Cancer Institute, many are available in an unusual form of XML, or not in
XML at all. As in this case, simple translations using standard XML parsers often will not be a reasonable solution
for making the transition to RDF or OWL.
The most time...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR) asked the RAND Corporation to identify and analyze existing data on the effects of preanalytical variables on biospecimens used to study genetic and proteomic changes in cancer. The project was broken down into three phases.
Differentiated thyroid cancer is the fastest‐growing cancer in women; it increased 2.4%
per year during 1980 to 1997 and 6.5% per year during 1997 to 2006 in the USA according
to the National Cancer Instituteʹs Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).
On the other hand, the refinement of new approaches for surveillance of patients with an
established diagnosis of thyroid cancer is leading to the observation that many patients,
previously thought to be cured, have evidence of minimal residual disease, a condition
with which we still do not know how to manage properly....
Neither randomized clinical trials nor meta-
analysis are available and evidence is based on a number of retrospective studies with
multivariate for mortality risk factors or data from national cancer registries (Gilliland et al.,
1997; Hundahl et al., 1998). Unfortunately, very remarkable differences in patient’s selection,
staging systems, and clinical management affect the available studies. In particular,
radioiodine treatment is not routinely carried out in a standard manner and outcome results
of different studies are thus not comparable (Sciuto et al., 2009).
I am very grateful to the special group of distinguished scientists who made up the Panel
and Secretariat for this major review of the evidence on food, nutrition, physical activity
and cancer. The vision of WCRF International in convening this Panel and confidence in
letting a strong-willed group of scientists have their way is to be highly commended.
In our view, the evidence reviewed here that led to our recommendations provides a
wonderful opportunity to prevent cancer and improve global health. Individuals and
populations have in their hands the means to lead fuller, healthier lives.
Massimo Costantini MD is a physician specializing in oncology. He is
responsible for the Regional Palliative Care Network, a unit of the National
Cancer Research Institute in Genoa, Italy. His research interests are in the
areas of palliative care, quality of life, and psycho-oncology. He was Medical
Director of the Hospice G. Ghirotti of Genoa (2002-2004). Since 2007, he
has been Visiting Professor in Palliative Care at the Department of Palliative
Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, King’s College, London.
Joanna Didkowska PhD works in the Department of Epidemiology and
Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Registry at the Maria Sklodowska Curie
Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw, Poland.
Since 1999, she has been Chair of the Association of Cancer Registries in Poland.
She focuses on descriptive cancer epidemiology in Poland, especially prediction
models, and the determinants of the health status of Poles and inhabitants of
central and eastern Europe. She works on analyses of data from the National
The National Cancer Guidance Steering Group, as it is now called,
was set up soon after the Calman-Hine report was published. It was
charged with developing guidance for the implementation of the new
policy in NHS services for the common cancers, starting with breast.
There was no precedent for this type of document, and apart from
the recognition that the guidance should complement existing clinical
guidelines, no clear picture as to what the documents should be like,
nor clarity about the ground they should cover.
Some adenomas produce too much adrenal steroid hormones. Sometimes the excess
hormone can cause symptoms. Many of the hormone-related symptoms of adenomas are
the same as those from adrenal carcinomas (cancers). These symptoms are discussed in
the sections, “Can adrenal cancer be found early?” and “How is adrenal cancer
diagnosed?” Adenomas are much more likely than carcinomas to produce high levels of
aldosterone, which can cause high blood pressure.
Treatment: Adenomas can be cured by removing the adrenal gland that contains the
A substantially greater proportion of women with breast cancer are receiv-
ing chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy than before 1988.
Earlier symptomatic presentation and greater use of adjuvant therapy
since 1988 has had a marked impact, reducing mortality rates from breast
cancer, in addition to the specific contribution from the NHSBSP.
Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer,
the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic
screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from
Most inherited cases of breast cancer
are associated with two abnormal
genes: BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1)
and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene 2).
According to the National Cancer
Institute, women with an abnormal
BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have about a
60% risk of being diagnosed with breast
cancer during their lifetimes (compared
to about 12% for women overall). Their
risk of ovarian cancer is also increased.
Abnormal BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are
found in 5% to 10% of all breast cancer
cases in the United States. Other types
of inherited gene abnormalities are less
We first highlight psychological and psychosocial issues associated with breast can-
cer, and then underscore specific psychosocial variables that may play a role in the dis-
ease. Further, we bring to light the current literature of psychosocial interventions for
patients with cancer. We then introduce preliminary research from an on-going study
funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This is a pilot study intended to explore
psychosocial factors and quality of life, preparatory to embarking on a larger scale, long-