Innovation is the strong driver of economic growth, new industries
and jobs, and a high standard of living, both in the United States and
globally. In the last half-century, innovation in turn has been increasingly
driven by educated people and the knowledge they produce, particularly
though scientific and technological research and development.
In 1995, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and
National Research Council issued a report entitled Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology, which
recommended tracking federal investments in the creation of new knowledge and technologies—what the report
referred to as the federal science and technology budget (FS&T).
Forty years ago, Congress asked the National Academies Committee on
Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)—the only joint policy
committee of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of
Engineering, and Institute of Medicine—to look at the relationship between basic
research and national goals. That request, from the House Committee on Science
and Astronautics in 1964, resulted in the report Basic Research and National Goals.
Jefferson’s perception has largely been replaced by other interpretations, but
the perception remains unchanged that the agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AFF)
workforce engages in noble activity that secures the nation’s present and future
fate. These populations deserve to work in environments that contribute to the
production of safe consumer products and that protect their health.
This book is the Institute of Medicine's response to the first part of the statement of task asking for a review of the 1994 National Vaccine Plan. The Committee on the Review of Priorities in the National Vaccine Plan reviewed the goals, objectives, strategies, and anticipated outcomes presented in the plan; their findings are contained in this book.In the first section of the book, the committee......
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives
and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s
(NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and
critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to
ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the
Consumers, healthcare providers, public health
professionals, employers, policymakers, and
others recognize that ready access to relevant,
reliable information would greatly improve
everyone’s ability to address personal and
community health concerns.
and adverse effects have been documented to
be severe problems for which information is a
crucial part of the solution.
The Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-first Century identified learning languages other than English as one of the eight key learning areas to be included in a balanced curriculum (MCCETYA 1999). Since then, learning other languages has experienced fluctuating fortunes in the curricula of various Australian states and territories; its struggle for acceptance as a legitimate area in its own right is ongoing.
Presenting case studies involving Rwanda, Nepal, Australia, Japan, and Mexico, including "real-time" policy and administrative questions, this versatile reference/text provides a wide perspective on national and international environmental problems and policies, featuring discussions with a regional emphasis as well as global significance.
For more than half of small businesses (58 percent), their social media efforts meet their
expectations. Over a quarter (28 percent) feel their expectations have not been met, and 8
percent feel social media exceeds their expectations. This has not changed much in the past six
What has changed is what small businesses’ expect to achieve with social media. Instead of the
lofty goal of social media identifying and attracting new customers, small businesses’ biggest
expectation from social media now is just to raise awareness of their business.
In recent years, legislative and market requirements have driven the need to reduce fuel
consumption while meeting increasingly stringent exhaust emissions. This trend has
dictated increasing complexity in automotive engines and new approaches to engine
design. A key research objective for the automotive engineering community has been the
potential combination of gasoline-engine specific power with diesel-like engine
efficiency in a cost-competitive, production-feasible power train.
Calls for standards in education have been echoing across the nation for several years, especially since political leaders
of both parties decided to adopt bipartisan national goals for education. Standards without appropriate means of
measuring progress, however, amount to little more than empty rhetoric. To stay the course and achieve the national
goals for education, we must measure the things that really count.
Men play two types of roles in reproductive health. Men are health care decision-makers
within the family, providers and promoters of health care, and play leadership roles in the
community and at the national level. Men also are individual beneficiaries of reproductive
health care. Men’s roles as beneficiaries extends to the protection and care of their families,
including family planning and maternal and child health.
This first national report reviews the implementation of MDGs. The report focuses on presenting the achievements, analyzing reasons for success and identifying emerging challenges to reach each goal, and offers policy recommendations to accelerate the effective implementation of MDGs, in line with the UN’s Millennium Declaration and Viet Nam’s Socio-economic Development Strategy.
In September 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) presented to the American
people the goals of the NIH for medical research in the 21st century. Dr. Elias Zerhouni,
who became director of the NIH in May 2002, had been Associate Dean for Research at
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine before going to the NIH as the fi rst radiologist
to head that agency. He had been trained in nuclear medicine while a resident in radiology
• The quality of governance. Good governance is critical for sus-
16 A growing body of evidence suggests
that gender equality in rights and resources is associated with
less corruption and better governance. Although the correlation
between gender and corruption may reflect the exclusion of
women from positions of power, and thus from the opportuni-
ty to engage in corrupt practices, evidence from micro-level
studies is consistent with the country-level correlation.
National Bank for Development designed its Microcredit concept under a lending system based on
the banking culture to achieve the social and national goal in accordance with the Egyptian context.
It is designed to be responsive to the immediate short credit needs of small entrepreneurs with no
commercial record or license.
One of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that has made some progress, albeit
slow, is MDG 5: Improve maternal health. The two targets for assessing MDG 5 are reducing
the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by three quarters between 1990 and 2015, and achieving
universal access to reproductive health by 2015. The United Nations (UN) Secretary-General
has launched the Global strategy for women’s and children’s health, to mobilize commitments
by governments, civil society organizations and development partners to accelerate progress
towards MDGs 4 and 5 (1).
Researchers have learned a lot in the last decade about fear, stress, and PTSD.
Scientists are also learning about how people form memories. This is important
because creating very powerful fear-related memories seems to be a major part of
PTSD. Researchers are also exploring how people can create “safety” memories to
replace the bad memories that form after a trauma. NIMH’s goal in supporting this
research is to improve treatment and ind ways to prevent the disorder.
education and health sectors have a common goal to provide opportunities for students to be more
empowered about health and related issues as they go through school. This need for partnerships and
a collaborative approach involving the education and health sectors in school health promotion is
universal, and there are indications that it is now being addressed in many parts of the world.