The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in
Solar and Space Physics is the product of an 18-month effort that began in
December 2000, when the National Research Council (NRC) approved a
study to assess the current status and future directions of U.S. ground- and
space-based programs in solar and space physics research. The NRC’s
Space Studies Board and its Committee on Solar and Space Physics organized
the study, which was carried out by five ad hoc study panels and the
15-member Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, chaired by Louis J.
We are grateful to everyone who attended the panel’s ﬁrst meet-
ing and provided perspectives on issues of human research participant
protection in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences (SBES).
We acknowledge the wealth of information that we obtained from web-
sites of private and public organizations and from previous surveys
of the review process for research with human participants (see the
In response to growing support for sustainable international development strategies,
the U.S. Congress has recommended that the Agency for International Development
(AID) create a new Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) that focuses on the
research needs of sustainable agriculture and natural resource management. The Office
of Agriculture in AID's Bureau for Science and Technology subsequently asked that the
National Research Council's Board on Agriculture (BA) and Board on Science and
Technology for International Development (BOSTID) undertake planning for the new
The National Research Council was mandated by the government to research the use of space-based observation of the earth in order to determine environmental changes. The committees were asked to determine the questions that should be addressed, taking into account the intended federal and local agencies that would use the data acquired. They then had to prioritize the experiments and observations knowing that it will be impossible to fund them all. The results make extremely sobering reading.
This report is a product of the Committee on USGS Water Resources
Research, which provides consensus advice to the Water Resources Division
(WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on scientific, research, and
programmatic issues. The committee is one of the groups that works under the
auspices of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) of the National
Research Council. The committee considers a variety of topics that are
important scientifically and programmatically to the USGS and the nation and
issues reports when appropriate....
The U.S. air transportation system is vital to the economic well-being and security of the United
States. To support continued U.S. leadership in aviation, Congress and NASA requested that the National
Research Council undertake a decadal survey of civil aeronautics research and technology (R&T) priorities
that would help NASA fulfill its responsibility to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics technology.
In 2006, the National Research Council published the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics.
This project was initiated in response to a letter from Charles Kean,
an Associate Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology and
Director of the Animal Care Facility at Loma Linda University, to
the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Institute for Laboratory Animal
Research (ILAR), the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of
Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International, and the Office of
Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) of the National Institutes of Health
(NIH) outlining the research animal care community’s concerns about the
safe and humane transportation of research animal...
The extraordinarily broad scope of the congressional request for advice
on coal resources and future coal research and development needs provided
a significant challenge for the committee appointed by the National
Research Council (NRC). Fortunately, clarifications by staff members from the
offices of U.S. Senators Robert C. Byrd and Arlen Specter—the originators of
this study—were most helpful, suggesting that the report should be brief and
contain limited detail, but with abundant references to other, more comprehensive
development, and analysis programs. The Board is charged to review the work only of ARL’s six directorates—and this excludes review of two key elements of the ARL organization that manage and support basic research: the Army Research Office and the Collaborative Technology Alliances. The advice provided focuses on technical rather than programmatic considerations. The Board is assisted by six standing National Research Council (NRC) panels, each of which focuses on a portion of the ARL program conducted by one of...
This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individu-
als chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accor-
dance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the
National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to
provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in mak-
ing its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report
meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness
to the charge.
In mid-1999 representatives of the Chinese Academy of Engineering
(CAE) visited the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) to explore the
prospects for collaboration between the two institutions on a study of the
future of the personal car in China. This is the second instance of formal
collaboration between the CAE and the NRC. The outcome of the first
was a study entitled Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the
United States, published in 2001, in which the Chinese Academy of Sciences
The papers in this book provide new information on several aspects of soil erosion
and applications of the National Resources Inventory (NRI). They were commissioned
following a planning workshop in July 1984 and were presented in December 1984
during a national convocation, “Physical Dimensions of the Erosion Problem.” The
workshop and convocation were held by the National Research Council's Board on
Agriculture in response to a request from the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S.
Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake
a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members
of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for
research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems
in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as
we become a spacefaring people.
In 2003, the National Research Council (NRC) published the first decadal strategy for solar and
space physics: The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space
Physics.1 That report included a recommended suite of NASA missions that were ordered by priority,
presented in an appropriate sequence, and selected to fit within the expected resource profile for the next
The Board on International Comparative Studies in Education
(BICSE) was established by the National Research Council (NRC) in
1988 at the request of the U.S. Department of Education’s National
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the U.S. National Science
Foundation (NSF). Under its initial mandate, the board monitored
U.S. participation in large-scale international comparative studies.
One of the greatest challenges South Africa faces is rural poverty and education. This book graphically illustrates the conditions that make the dreams of a better life for all virtually unrealisable in rural areas. Through the voices of rural people themselves, the reader is told
As the workshop summarized in this volume demonstrated, the research base
about learning in early childhood is expanding and has great potential to contrib-
ute to a broader set of national policy goals focused on making sure that all
children enter kindergarten ready to learn. With this important research base in
mind, the National Research Council’s Center for Education (CFE) convened a
workshop to focus on early learning in mathematics and science.
.Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division on Policy and Global Affairs