Natural ecosystems

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  • Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity— that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems, these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.

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  • The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates — Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the world....

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  • The planet is a marvelous place with its blue skies, wild storms, deep lakes, and rich and diverse ecosystems. The tides ebb and flow, baby animals are born in the spring, and tropical rain forests harbor an astonishing array of life. The Earth sustains living things and provides humans with the resources they need to maintain a bountiful way of life. These resources include water, soil, and nutrients to grow food, and the mineral and energy resources to build and fuel modern society, among many other things....

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  • Natural resources conservation is one of the dilemmas currently facing mankind in both developed and the developing world. The topic is of particular importance for the latter, where the majority depend on terrestrial ecosystems for livelihood; more than one billion people live in abject poverty earning less than a dollar per day; more than 3.7 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiency and more than 800 million suffer from chronic hunger.

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  • The planet is a marvelous place: a place with blue skies, wild storms, deep lakes, and rich and diverse ecosystems. The tides ebb and flow, baby animals are born in the spring, and tropical rain forests harbor an astonishing array of life. The Earth sustains living things and provides humans with the resources to maintain a bountiful way of life: water, soil, and nutrients to grow food, and the mineral and energy resources to build and fuel modern society, among many other things.

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  • Urban Ecology is the study of ecosystems that include humans living in cities and urbanizing landscapes. It is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that aims to understand how human and ecological processes can coexist in human-dominated systems and help societies with their efforts to become more sustainable. It has deep roots in many disciplines including sociology, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, engineering, economics, anthropology, climatology, public health, and ecology.

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  • Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.

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  • This book addresses the significant environmental changes experienced by high latitude and high altitude ecosystems at the beginning of the 21st century. Increased temperatures and precipitation, reduction in sea ice and glacier ice, the increased levels of UV-radiation and the long-range transported contaminants in arctic and alpine regions are stress factors that challenge terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

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  • This book is about the distribution and abundance of different types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially the biological features and interactions that determine these distributions and abundances. Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But ecology is not an easy science.

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  • The history and development of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem in the southeastern United States has intrigued natural resource professionals, researchers, and the general public for many decades. Prior to European settlement, longleaf pine forests were one of the most extensive ecosystems in North America. Most recent estimates suggest that only about 2.2% of the original area remains today, making it one of the most threatened ecosystems in North America.

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  • .society for ecological restoration The Science and Practice of Ecological Restoration Editorial Board James Aronson, EDITOR Karen D. Holl, ASSOCIATE EDITOR Donald A. Falk, Richard J. Hobbs, Margaret A. Palmer A complete list of titles in this series can be found in the back of this book. The Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) is an international nonprofit organization whose mission is to promote ecological restoration as a means of sustaining the diversity of life on Earth and reestablishing an ecologically healthy relationship between nature and culture.

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  • THOUGHTFUL OBSERVERS of global ecosystems cannot fail to see that we live in a world dominated by humans.We cannot stand apart from nature, and now nature as we know it cannot stand apart from us. Faced with dawning clarity about this new relationship, we are uncertain of what to do.

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  • Forest ecosystems cover large parts of the terrestrial land surface and are major components of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. Most important, forest ecosystems accumulate organic compounds with long C residence times in vegetation, detritus and, in particular, the soil by the process of C sequestration. Trees, the major components of forests, absorb large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by photosynthesis, and forests return an almost equal amount to the atmosphere by auto- and heterotrophic respiration.

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  • The Pacific Ocean isn’t just the deepest and largest ocean. It is also home to one of the world’s most amazing natural wonders: the Great Barrier Reef. Located off of the northeastern coast of Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is 210 separate coral reefs that stretch for more than 1,260 miles (2,028 kilometers) around northern Australia. Th e Great Barrier Reef is full of some of the most amazing, beautiful, and deadly sea creatures on the planet, including the Irukandji jellyfi sh and the great white shark....

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  • The Goodwin-Niering Center for Conservation Biology and Environmental Studies at Connecticut College is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary program that builds on one of the nation’s leading undergraduate environmental studies programs. The Center fosters research, education, and curriculum development aimed at understanding contemporary ecological challenges.

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  • This book is about the distribution and abundance of different types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially the biological features and interactions that determine these distributions and abundances. Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But ecology is not an easy science.

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  • Our precious planet is in peril. The economic overshoot of ecological thresholds is seemingly the order of the day. Yet, it is clearly not enough to lament the excessive economic use and human domination of ecosystems and sit as if in sackcloth and ashes while romanticizing the days gone by.

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  • Dualism is a dominant theory of life that considers reality to be a balance between two independent and fundamental principles: good and evil, mind and matter, nature and nurture. In the same manner we see the thread of dualism run through the ecology of parasitism: they can generate diversity but cause extinction, they may castrate a host but increase its growth rate, and they can stimulate an immune response but at the same time encourage a secondary chronic infection.

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  • The world is changing quickly, and our models of learning, communicating, and acting must change accordingly. Throughout society we must rethink basic notions of how we define and accomplish our goals in a complex and changing environment, including how we prepare ourselves for professional careers. This book is an effort in that direction for students in natural resource management. It is a response to some of the challenges we perceive students will face in the early twenty-first century, and it is a practice field on which they may begin to develop their skills....

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  • Scientific perception of nature relies on a process of transforming data to information, and then information into understanding. Data consist of observations and measurements and information is data organized according to some ontology, i.e. some set of assumptions about what entities exist and how they should be classified. Understanding is a model in the investigator’s mind that describes how the entities relate to each other, a model created in the investigator’s mind as a result of thinking.

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