Stories from tribes across the North American continent show both the divergent philsophies, as well as the common ground. The editors have wonderfully resisted any urge to edit these stories. Each chapter opens with an overview provided by Erdoes and Ortiz. There are occasional editorial explanations at the ends of stories. They should expecially be applauded for including stories with humor.
Ebook The usborne big book of experiments helps children can investigate the world around them and discover science in action. Specially chosen activities include making electricity, bending light and weather watching. Helpful descriptions, clearly written text and explanations show how and why the experiments work. Striking artwork and photographs illustrate all projects with clarity.
THE first edition of this essay has been out of print
for some time, but apparently some demand for it
continues. I have therefore taken advantage of the
publisher's decision to reprint to introduce certain
alterations and improvements which experience since
it was first written seemed to make desirable.
Create your own natural language training corpus for machine learning. Whether you’re working with English, Chinese, or any other natural language, this hands-on book guides you through a proven annotation development cycle—the process of adding metadata to your training corpus to help ML algorithms work more efficiently. You don’t need any programming or linguistics experience to get started.
The connection between receptivity and intensely motivated activity is
further established when we appreciate that an arcane definition of “pas-
sion,” from the Latin “pati,” is suffering. Both passion and suffering
mean to experience intensely while being acted upon by the world. It is
to let something happen to oneself and to bear the weight of its conse-
quences. Far from being destructive, passion and suffering are associated
with heightened vitality and renewed life. ...
There is also considerable scope for a South-South exchange of good prac-
tice. Again, when done right, larger-scale farming can provide opportunities for
poor countries with large agricultural sectors and ample endowments of land.
To make the most of these opportunities, however, countries will need to bet-
ter secure local land rights and improve land governance. Adopting an open
and proactive approach to dealing with investors is also needed to ensure that
investment contributes to broader development objectives.
In this paper, we study the problem of using an annotated corpus in English for the same natural language processing task in another language. While various machine translation systems are available, automated translation is still far from perfect. To minimize the noise introduced by translations, we propose to use only key ‘reliable” parts from the translations and apply structural correspondence learning (SCL) to ﬁnd a low dimensional representation shared by the two languages.
German case syncretism is often assumed to be the accidental by-product of historical development. This paper contradicts this claim and argues that the evolution of German case is driven by the need to optimize the cognitive effort and memory required for processing and interpretation. This hypothesis is supported by a novel kind of computational experiments that reconstruct and compare attested variations of the German deﬁnite article paradigm.
We investigate the controversial issue about the upper bound of interjudge agreement in the use of a low-level grammatical representation. Pessimistic views suggest that several percent of words in running text are undecidable in terms of part-of-speech categories. Our experiments with 55kW data give reason for optimism: linguists with only 30 hours' training apply the EngCG-2 morphological tags with almost 100% interjudge agreement.
A word of explanation is perhaps necessary as to the form in which these experiences have been put together.
The matter was originally collected with the object of sending a series of articles to the British Medical
Journal. Various circumstances, however, of which the chief was the feeling that extending experience altered
in many cases the views adopted at first sight, prevented the original intention from being carried into
execution, and the articles, considerably expanded, are now published together....
To improve the interaction between students and an intelligent tutoring system, we developed two Natural Language generators, that we systematically evaluated in a three way comparison that included the original system as well. We found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Speciﬁcally, it appears that functional aggregation is responsible for the improvement.
Based on experience with INTELLECT in the areas of quality assurance and customer support, a number of issues in evaluating a natural language database query system, particularly the INTELLECT system, will be discussed. A, I. Corporation offers licenses for customers t o use the INTELLECT software on their computers, to access their databases. We now have a number of customer installations, plus reports from companies that are marketing INTELLECT under agreements with us, so that we can begin to discuss user reactions as possible criteria for evaluating our system. ...
The choice of verb features is crucial for the learning of verb classes. This paper presents clustering experiments on 168 German verbs, which explore the relevance of features on three levels of verb description, purely syntactic frame types, prepositional phrase information and selectional preferences. In contrast to previous approaches concentrating on the sparse data problem, we present evidence for a linguistically defined limit on the usefulness of features which is driven by the idiosyncratic properties of the verbs and the specific attributes of the desired verb classification. ...
We describe a set of experiments using automatically labelled data to train supervised classiﬁers for multi-class emotion detection in Twitter messages with no manual intervention. By cross-validating between models trained on different labellings for the same six basic emotion classes, and testing on manually labelled data, we conclude that the method is suitable for some emotions (happiness, sadness and anger) but less able to distinguish others; and that different labelling conventions are more suitable for some emotions than others. ...
NEARLY three decades ago, while engaged in the postgraduate study of
American history, I began reading a book of nature writing by Joseph
Wood Krutch, The Twelve Seasons, and immediately saw what was missing
from my seminars. There was no nature in their history—no sense of
the presence and influence of the land on past human experience, no soil,
no countryside, no smell of fungus, no sound of spring peepers trilling
from the marsh at dusk.
This tool kit is designed for schools that want to help students recover from traumatic experiences such as natural disasters, exposure to violence, abuse or assault, terrorist incidents, and war and refugee experiences. It focuses on long-term recovery, as opposed to immediate disaster response
This paper describes a novel approach for the automatic generation and evaluation of a trivial dialogue phrases database. A trivial dialogue phrase is deﬁned as an expression used by a chatbot program as the answer of a user input. A transfer-like genetic algorithm (GA) method is used to generating the trivial dialogue phrases for the creation of a natural language generation (NLG) knowledge base. The automatic evaluation of a generated phrase is performed by producing n-grams and retrieving their frequencies from the World Wide Web (WWW).