The water soluble crude polysaccharide obtained from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps militaris (CPM)
by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation was fractionated by DEAE cellulose and
Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. This fractionation process resulted in four polysaccharide
fractions that were termed CPMN Fr I, CPMN Fr II, CPMN Fr III, and CPMN Fr IV. Of these fractions,
CPMN Fr III was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such
as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of cytokines (IL-1b and TNF-a).
Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are
used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers
that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are
not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the
natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the
convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural
environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in
order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.
Basidiomycetes constitute a natural source of biologically
active metabolites. Many basidiomycetes have
been classified by the National Cancer Institute of the
United States as antitumor agents exhibiting an immunomodulatory
activity.1 The therapeutic activity is
mainly related to polysaccharides or protein-bound
polysaccharides, such as glucans, heterogalactans, and
glucanproteins, which are present either in the mycelium
or in the fruit body.2–6 Among these polysaccharides are
b-D-glucans, which are of particular interest because of
their pharmacological properties.
In Section V, we discuss how our theory contributes to the literature on contracting with timeinconsistent
or irrational consumers and relates to neoclassical screening. We are not aware of a
theory with rational time-consistent borrowers that explains the key contract features predicted
by our model, and we argue that natural specifications do not do so. Because the main predictions
of our model are about repayment terms, the most likely neoclassical screening explanation
would revolve around heterogeneity in borrowers’ ability to repay the loan early.
The recent literature on health economics has shown a keen interest in the mea-
surement of health inequality and in its determinants. One of the more persistent
and salient ﬁndings1
is the existence of a “health-income gradient”, in the sense
that health tends to be associated positively with incomes. A seemingly natural
corollary is that health policy might usefully take place through income redistri-
bution and a general improvement in living standards.
Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus from the family Trichocomaceae. Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, and plants. The major industrial use of this fungus is the production of blue cheeses, flavouring agents, antifungals, polysaccharides, proteases and other enzymes.