Natural selection

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  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, by Alfred Russel Wallace This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection A Series of Essays Author: Alfred Russel Wallace Release Date: August 29, 2007

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  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, by Charles Darwin This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (2nd edition) Author: Charles Darwin Release Date: September 25, 2007 ...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'contributions to the theory of natural selection, by alfred russel', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Natural selection of protein structural and functional properties: a single nucleotide polymorphism perspective...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A genome-wide approach to identify genetic loci with a signature of natural selection in the Irish population...

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  • ‘Design’ is one of those words that means all things to all people. Every manufactured thing, from the most lyrical of ladies’ hats to the greasiest of gearboxes, qualifies, in some sense or other, as a design. It can mean yet more. Nature, to some is Divine Design; to others it is design by Natural Selection, the ultimate genetic algorithm. The reader will agree that it is necessary to narrow the field, at least a little. This book is about

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  • Natural Law, whether grounded in human reason or divine edict, is an unwritten form of law which encourages people to follow virtue and shun vice. The concept dominated Renaissance thought, where its literary equivalent, poetic justice, underpinned much of the period's creative writing. R. S. White's study examines a wide range of Renaissance texts, by More, Spenser, Sidney, Shakespeare and Milton, in the light of these developing ideas of Natural Law.

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  • Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals of describing variation in natural systems and discovering its functional basis. Within this common framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize historical and lineage-dependent processes and hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists, while cognizant of historical processes, tend to explain variation in terms of the contemporary effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.

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  • This paper presents a comparative study of five parameter estimation algorithms on four NLP tasks. Three of the five algorithms are well-known in the computational linguistics community: Maximum Entropy (ME) estimation with L2 regularization, the Averaged Perceptron (AP), and Boosting. We also investigate ME estimation with L1 regularization using a novel optimization algorithm, and BLasso, which is a version of Boosting with Lasso (L1) regularization. We first investigate all of our estimators on two re-ranking tasks: a parse selection task and a language model (LM) adaptation task. ...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, kĩ thuật viễn thông phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • We present the PONG method to compute selectional preferences using part-of-speech (POS) N-grams. From a corpus labeled with grammatical dependencies, PONG learns the distribution of word relations for each POS N-gram. From the much larger but unlabeled Google N-grams corpus, PONG learns the distribution of POS N-grams for a given pair of words. We derive the probability that one word has a given grammatical relation to the other. PONG estimates this probability by combining both distributions, whether or not either word occurs in the labeled corpus. ...

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  • Poverty-environment linkages take different forms in rural and urban contexts. In rural areas, critical issues relate to access to natural resources such as land, forests, or fisheries and their sustainable use. In urban zones, the poverty-environment agenda centres on questions relating to the use of natural resources such as water or air as sinks for the disposal of human and industrial wastes, and their impact on the poor.

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  • This paper reports on the ESPRIT project MELISSA (Methods and Tools for NaturalLanguage Interfacing with Standard Software Applications) ~. MELISSA aims at developing the technology and tools enabling end users to interface with computer applications, using natural-language (NL), and to obtain a precompetitive product validated in selected enduser applications. This paper gives an overview of the approach to solving (NL) interfacing problem and outlines some of the methods and software components developed in the project. ...

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  • It is necessary to have a (large) annotated corpus to build a statistical parser. Acquisition of such a corpus is costly and time-consuming. This paper presents a method to reduce this demand using active learning, which selects what samples to annotate, instead of annotating blindly the whole training corpus. Sample selection for annotation is based upon “representativeness” and “usefulness”. A model-based distance is proposed to measure the difference of two sentences and their most likely parse trees.

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  • The system achieves conceptual generation using a discourse schema system [McKnent selects items from a knowledge base and orders them ewon 1985, Paris 1985]; stylistic generation will be ruleinto a message to address some discourse goal. This mes- based. The revision component will review the generated sage is passed to the stylistic component that makes lex- text and produce recommendations to the conceptual and ical and syntactic choices to produce a natural language stylistic components as to how to improve the text. ...

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  • Robust natural language interpretation requires strong semantic domain models, "fall-soff" recovery heuristics, and very flexible control structures. Although single-strategy parsers have met with a measure of success, a multi.strategy approach is shown to provide a much higher degree of flexibility, redundancy, and ability to bring task-specific domain knowledge (in addition to general linguistic knowledge) to bear on both grammatical and ungrammatical input. A parsing algorithm is presented that integrates several different parsing strategies, with case-frame instantiation dominating. ...

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  • To give appropriate translation equivalents for target words is one of the most fundamental problems in machine translation systrms. Especially, when the MT systems handle languages that have completely different structures like Japanese and European languages as source and target languages. In this report, we discuss about the data strucutre that enables appropriate selections of translation equivalents for verbs in the target language. This structure is based on the concepts strucutre with associated information relating source and target languages.

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  • This book is an exploration of the evolutionary process of natural hybridization. My motivation for writing this book comes from the view that crosses between genetically divergent individuals have a major influence on the evolution of some plant and animal species complexes. In particular, I want to examine the role that natural hybridization has as a creative force in organismal evolution. I realize that my emphasis on the "creative" aspect of natural hybridization could lead some to conclude that I believe that this is the only possible outcome from hybridization and gene exchange....

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  • We present a holistic data-driven approach to image description generation, exploiting the vast amount of (noisy) parallel image data and associated natural language descriptions available on the web. More specifically, given a query image, we retrieve existing human-composed phrases used to describe visually similar images, then selectively combine those phrases to generate a novel description for the query image.

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  • Convolution kernels, such as sequence and tree kernels, are advantageous for both the concept and accuracy of many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Experiments have, however, shown that the over-fitting problem often arises when these kernels are used in NLP tasks. This paper discusses this issue of convolution kernels, and then proposes a new approach based on statistical feature selection that avoids this issue. To enable the proposed method to be executed efficiently, it is embedded into an original kernel calculation process by using sub-structure mining algorithms. ...

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