Essential oil of Cinnamomum longepetiolatum Costerm. apud Phamh. Obtained by hydro distillation. The essential oil yield was 0.91% in fresh leaves. The chemical composition of this oil was study by GC and GC/MS. Twelve compounds were identified representing 98.8% of this oil with camphor as major constituent (87.5%). Eleven other compounds were found with lower content. The results of this study shows that Cinnamomum longepetiolatum Costerm. apud Phamh. was a new natural source of camphor in Vietnam. ...
Renewable natural resources
in the forefront to save the environment and we must do our best to find
applications suitable for them.
The production process is shown by the method of casting, rolling process
including monitoring throughout the process. Innovative testing procedures described in
electrochemistry, ultrasonic pulse velocity, fracture toughness in the macro-micro
mechanical behavior and more. The coordination between the components, laminas and
building parts are checked by different principles....
Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy and an important
source of many bulk chemicals and speciality chemicals. It is one of the cleanest, safest,
and most useful of all energy sources, and helps to meet the world’s rising demand for
cleaner energy into the future. However, exploring, producing and bringing gas to the
user or converting gas into desired chemicals is a systematical engineering project, and
every step requires thorough understanding of gas and the surrounding environment.
• Network errors are in the form of corrupted data or lost data.
• Network errors occur naturally on all networks due to electrical noise and distortion
and must be detected and corrected by either hardware or software.
• Bit Error Rates (BERs) are calculated as the number of bits in error divided by the
number of bits transmitted. A BER of 1 in 100,000 might be shown as 1:105
as a BER of 10-5
• Errors often occur in bursts where many bits in a sequence will be in...
Water-quality engineering is a specialty area in environmental engineering that includes
the subspecialties of water treatment, wastewater treatment, and water-quality control in
natural systems. This textbook is intended to encompass the latter subspecialty, and the
content of this book constitutes baseline knowledge expected of water-quality engineers
The data revealed some potential trends in illicit activity. Some of the typologies
evidenced in the narratives appeared very similar to classical examples of the money
laundering stages of layering and integration.
For example, subjects sometimes
used multiple cash equivalents (e.g., cashier’s checks and money orders) from differ-
ent banks and money services businesses to make policy or annuity payments, and
then cashed out the insurance products to potentially disguise the original source
of the funds.
A C 1-generic dichotomy for diﬀeomorphisms: Weak forms of hyperbolicity or inﬁnitely many sinks or sources
By C. Bonatti, L. J. D´ ıaz, and E. R. Pujals*
A Ricardo Ma˜e (1948–1995), por todo su trabajo n´ Abstract We show that, for every compact n-dimensional manifold, n ≥ 1, there is a residual subset of Diﬀ1 (M ) of diﬀeomorphisms for which the homoclinic class of any periodic saddle of f veriﬁes one of the following two possibilities: Either it is contained in the closure of an inﬁnite set of sinks or sources (Newhouse phenomenon), or it presents some weak form of...
Although phosphate rock and potash are used as raw
materials for a wide range of applications, the most
important use by far is the manufacture of mineral
The primary source of these minerals is geological ore
deposits formed through past sedimentary or igneous
activities. In the case of potash, concentrated brines
are also a significant source.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the major
activities involved in the mining, handling and benefi-
ciation of phosphate rock and potash ore....
Anyone interested in the relation between cultural production and consumption and the development of Free and Open Software (FOSS) will want to read these essays by Open Source pioneer Felix Stalder, the first research to be published within the "Note Book" project by kuda.org. Stalder observes that culture can be approached as object-oriented or exchange-oriented, and believes that Open Source eventually leads to a more open society.
The purpose of environmental-economic
accounting is to supplement the conventional
national accounts (UN SNA 2008) with tables
which inform policymakers of environmental and
natural resource availability, use, depletion and
The biggest challenge will not be to devise new individual policies, but
to strengthen the EU’s most powerful tool for dealing with Russia: unity.
The EU has a basic choice to make: either member states continue to pursue
bilateral agendas, but ultimately all lose out. Or it can unite – which will
require individual member states to make possibly painful concessions –
and exercise real inﬂuence over the nature of the relationship with Russia.
In order to help achieve this level of unity, the EU could form pioneer groups
of member states working out a common strategic...
A number of researchers have compiled public sector debt data, either as an end goal or to
address specific research questions. For example, to investigate the impact of domestic debt
on growth, Abbas and Christensen (2010) collected data on 144 LICs and emerging
economies for 1970–2007. They relied mainly on IFS data and focused on banking sector
claims on central governments.
The Natural Language Toolkit is a suite of program modules, data sets and tutorials supporting research and teaching in computational linguistics and natural language processing. NLTK is written in Python and distributed under the GPL open source license. Over the past year the toolkit has been rewritten, simplifying many linguistic data structures and taking advantage of recent enhancements in the Python language. This paper reports on the simpliﬁed toolkit and explains how it is used in teaching NLP....
We report in this paper the observation of one tokenization per source. That is, the same critical fragment in different sentences from the same source almost always realize one and the same of its many possible tokenizations. This observation is demonstrated very helpful in sentence tokenization practice, and is argued to be with far-reaching implications in natural language processing.
Multi-source statistical machine translation is the process of generating a single translation from multiple inputs. Previous work has focused primarily on selecting from potential outputs of separate translation systems, and solely on multi-parallel corpora and test sets. We demonstrate how multi-source translation can be adapted for multiple monolingual inputs.
We demonstrate an open-source natural language generation engine that produces descriptions of entities and classes in English and Greek from OWL ontologies that have been annotated with linguistic and user modeling information expressed in RDF . We also demonstrate an accompanying plug-in for the Prot´ g´ ontology editor, e e which can be used to create the ontology’s annotations and generate previews of the resulting texts by invoking the generation engine.
In this paper* I will argue for a model of grammatical processing that is based on uniform processing and knowledge sources. The main feature of this model is to view parsing and generation as two strongly interleaved tasks performed by a single parametrized deduction process. It will be shown that this view supports flexible and efficient natural language processing.
The use of open source softwares helps users learn the internal structure of numerical models. However, open source softwares usually require linking to auxiliary programs for data preprocessing, postprocessing, and visualization. The users also have to understand the problem thoroughly, and may at times modify the source code so that the model could better represent the natural mechanisms.
In this paper, we show that Higher-Order Coloured Unification - a form of unification developed for automated theorem proving - provides a general theory for modeling the interface between the interpretation process and other sources of linguistic, non semantic information. In particular, it provides the general theory for the Primary Occurrence Restriction which (Dalrymple et al., 1991)'s analysis called for.
Ultimately in any natural language production system the largest amount of human effort will go into the construction of the dictionary: the data base that associates objects and relations in the program's domain with the words and phrases that could be used to describe them.