Natural value

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  • The contemporary debate about the nature of human nature, centering around the implications of Darwin’s theory of evolution, is the newest chapter in a long history of explorations. Confl icting ideas about human nature have always sat at the core of philosophical debates, often educational ones. Plato and Aristotle, for example, had differing views on human nature, and thus different approaches to educational philosophy.1 So too did Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Hume and Rousseau

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  • The traditional view of the relationship between business and the arts is very much a one-way affair: organisations may endorse, fund or publicise the arts but the arts have nothing to offer from a business perspective. The Value of Arts for Business challenges this view by showing how the arts, in the form of Arts-based Initiatives (ABIs), can be used to enhance valuecreation capacity and boost business performance. The book introduces and explains three models that show how organisations can successfully implement and manage ABIs.

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  • Non-market valuation has become a broadly accepted and widely practiced means of measuring the economic values of the environment and natural resources. In this book, the authors provide a guide to the statistical and econometric practices that economists employ in estimating non-market values. The authors develop the econometric models that underlie the basic methods: contingent valuation, travel cost models, random utility models and hedonic models.

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  • Game theory has become one of the main analytical tools for addressing strategic issues in the field of economics and is expanding its influence in other fields of social sciences. With the increased level of extraction of natural resources and pollution of environments, game theory gains its place in the literature and it is seen more and more as a tool for policymakers and not only for theoreticians.

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  • The dynamic nature of the Jepara industrial complex also affects the Indonesian wood products chain, attracting timber produced from forests located throughout Central Java (Figure 1) and beyond, including the outer islands. Thousands of trucks and pickups bring logs into the district from distant places, including state and community forest plantations.

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  • Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity— that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems, these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.

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  • National parks or generally protected areas (PAs) normally hold a high value as a recreational resource or destination. Though in many cases no fee or charge is made to view or enjoy natural ecosystems, people still spend time and money to reach PAs. These costs of spending (for transport, food, accommodation, time, etc.) can be calculated, and a visitation rates can be compared to expenditures. These travel costs reveals the value that people place on recreational, tourism or leisure aspects of PAs....

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  • We devise a new criterion for linear independence over function fields. Using this tool in the setting of dual t-motives, we find that all algebraic relations among special values of the geometric Γ-function over Fq [T ] are explained by the standard functional equations. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Notation and terminology 3. A linear independence criterion 4. Tools from (non)commutative algebra

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  • Sequential Method ( Preprocessing Methods) Parrarel Method missing value is taking into account in main process knowledge mining.Do Not Impute ( parrarel method) Case Deletion / Row Ignoring. Fill in the missing value / Imputation Method.The rising of new pattern because of wrong imputation method Biasing natural pattern in original data.Given a set of objects, the overall objective of clustering is to divide the data set into groups based on similarity of objects, and to minimize the intra-cluster dissimilarity.

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  • In recent years tree kernels have been proposed for the automatic learning of natural language applications. Unfortunately, they show (a) an inherent super linear complexity and (b) a lower accuracy than traditional attribute/value methods. In this paper, we show that tree kernels are very helpful in the processing of natural language as (a) we provide a simple algorithm to compute tree kernels in linear average running time and (b) our study on the classification properties of diverse tree kernels show that kernel combinations always improve the traditional methods. ...

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  • Tham khảo sách 'mixed boundary value problems© 2008', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, tự động hoá phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Parametric polymorphism has been combined with inclusional polymorphism to provide natural type systems for Prolog (DH88), HiLog (YFS92), and coristraint resolution languages (Smo89), and, in linguistics, by HPSG-like grammars to classify lists and sets of linguistic objects (PS94), and by phonologists in representations of hierarchical structure (Kle91).

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  • An algorithm based on the Generalized Hebbian Algorithm is described that allows the singular value decomposition of a dataset to be learned based on single observation pairs presented serially. The algorithm has minimal memory requirements, and is therefore interesting in the natural language domain, where very large datasets are often used, and datasets quickly become intractable. The technique is demonstrated on the task of learning word and letter bigram pairs from text.

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  • This paper presents the first demonstration of a statistical spoken dialogue system that uses automatic belief compression to reason over complex user goal sets. Reasoning over the power set of possible user goals allows complex sets of user goals to be represented, which leads to more natural dialogues. The use of the power set results in a massive expansion in the number of belief states maintained by the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) spoken dialogue manager.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'water and people challenges at the interface of symbolic and utilitarian values', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • You will never really understand finance until you understand the time value of money. Although the discussion that follows cannot avoid being mathematical in nature, we focus on only a handful of formulas so that you can more easily grasp the fundamentals. We start with a discussion of simple interest and use this as a springboard to develop the concept of compound interest.

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  • The authors and contributors to this report acknowledge the Indigenous Traditional Owners of Country throughout Northern Australia, and their right to speak for Country. The authors are recipients of an ARC Linkage Grant focused on investigating connectivity conservation issues in various regions, including Northern Australia. Some of the outcomes from that research were drawn upon for this report.

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  • Let µ be the m−fold convolution of the standard Cantor measure and αm be the lower extreme value of the local dimension of the measure µ. The values of αm for m = 2, 3, 4 were showed in [4] and [5]. In this paper, we show that

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  • This paper defines multiset-valued linear index grammar and unordered vector grammar with dominance links. The former models certain uses of multisetvalued feature structures in unification-based formalisms, while the latter is motivated by word order variation and by "quasi-trees", a generalization of trees. The two formalisms are weakly equivalent, and an important subset is at most context-sensitive and polynomially parsable.

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  • Although a great deal of research effort has been expended in support of natural language (NL) database querying, little effort has gone to NL database update. One reason for this state of affairs is that in NL querying, one can tie nouns and stative verbs in the query to database objects (relation names, attributes and domain values). In many cases this correspondence seems sufficient to interpret NL queries. NL update seems to require database counterparts for active verbs, such as "hire," "schedule" and "enroll," rather than for stative entities. ...

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