The diagnoses in clinical
medicine of a patient or group in the population
as deviating from the medical definition
of normal. In Foucault’s sociology
the proposition is that concepts of normality
are constructed by state and professional
healing and helping occupations to
facilitate the regulation of the population.
France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology.
Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made
great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when
it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced
that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare
species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the
general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the
As in many other disciplines, research methodology in language program evaluation is classified into different paradigms by different scholars. No matter what classification each researcher follows, research in language program evaluation can be conducted according to two general approaches: positivistic/quantitative and naturalistic/qualitative.