Nature and calculations

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  • This textbook is organised to provide you with what has been found to be the most appropriate sequencing of topics as you build the foundations of your accounting knowledge. You will find that a number of features of the book, properly used, will enhance your understanding and extend your ability to cope with what will possibly appear, at first, to be a mystifying array of rules and procedures.

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  • (BQ) Ebook An Introduction to Programming and Numerical Methods in MATLAB  provides an introduction to the numerical methods that are typically encountered (and used) in science and engineering undergraduate courses. The material is developed in tandem with matlab which allows rapid prototyping and testing of the methods. The package matlab (matrix laboratory) pro vides an environment in which students can learn to programme and explore the structure of the numerical methods.

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  • It is necessary to have a (large) annotated corpus to build a statistical parser. Acquisition of such a corpus is costly and time-consuming. This paper presents a method to reduce this demand using active learning, which selects what samples to annotate, instead of annotating blindly the whole training corpus. Sample selection for annotation is based upon “representativeness” and “usefulness”. A model-based distance is proposed to measure the difference of two sentences and their most likely parse trees.

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  • (BQ) Achieve success in your physics course by making the most of what Ebook Physics for Scientists and Engineers has to offer. From a host of in-text features to a range of outstanding technology resources, you'll have everything you need to understand the natural forces and principles of physics. Throughout every chapter, the authors have built in a wide range of examples, exercises, and illustrations that will help you understand the laws of physics AND succeed in your course.

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  • • Network errors are in the form of corrupted data or lost data. • Network errors occur naturally on all networks due to electrical noise and distortion and must be detected and corrected by either hardware or software. • Bit Error Rates (BERs) are calculated as the number of bits in error divided by the number of bits transmitted. A BER of 1 in 100,000 might be shown as 1:105 or simply as a BER of 10-5 . • Errors often occur in bursts where many bits in a sequence will be in...

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  • While most consumers still base their travel decisions largely on price, value for money, service and availability, more and more people are taking environmental factors into account. The railway community is therefore working hard to provide customers with comprehensive information on climate change, air pollution and the ‘external costs’ of transport. New internet-based tools, such as EcoPassenger and EcoTransIT (see Figure 6), are making a range of data available to customers.

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  • Severe chemical contamination was found in ash contaminated soil samples from open burning sites at both Agbogbloshie and Korforidua, as well as in sediment from a shallow lagoon at the Agbogbloshie site. Most samples contained numerous toxic and persistent organic chemical pollutants, as well as very high levels of many toxic metals, the majority of which are either known to be used in electronic devices, or are likely to be formed during the open- burning of materials used in such devices.

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  • In [27], we introduced Floer homology theories HF − (Y, s), HF ∞ (Y, s), HF (Y, s),and HFred (Y, s) associated to closed, oriented three-manifolds Y equipped with a Spinc structures s ∈ Spinc (Y ). In the present paper, we give calculations and study the properties of these invariants. The calculations suggest a conjectured relationship with Seiberg-Witten theory.

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  • Policy-relevant background – This is an estimate based on air pollution models of the natural background ozone concentrations that would exist without sources of air pollution from human activity, and therefore cannot be affected by emissions control efforts (Fiore 2004).

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  • This Report addresses in considerable detail the consequences of hot particles on and near the skin, in the eye, ear, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. Limits for exposures from hot particles are recommended. If exposures are maintained below the recommended limits, few, if any, deterministic biological effects are expected to be observed, and those effects would be transient in nature. If effects from a hot-particle exposure are observed, the result is an easily treated medical condition involving an extraordinarily small stochastic risk.

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  • Monte-Carlo modeling allows calculating the detector efficiency in gamma spectrometry of environmental samples with taking into consideration both the photon selfabsorption in sample itself and absorption in all other materials between the sample and the detector’s active part. In this paper, the peak efficiencies of the Hp Ge detector (GMX) for gammas at various energies (emitted isotropically from the standard disk source and volumetric source - environmental sample, in which the different radionuclides are present) ...

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  • All biologists worth their salt know that each and every form of life has the capacity to multiply and increase at a truly astonishing, indeed a frightening rate. It is easy to do calculations demonstrating the truth of this. For example, assuming (in all cases) that all descendants survive, one bacterium dividing every 20 minutes would produce approximately 300 grams of bacteria in 24 hours; 150 million tonnes in a month. A female housefly, laying a minimum of 600 eggs in her lifetime, would, at the end of a summer of some eight to 10 generations, have 1.

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  • Analytical expressions for the Morse potential parameters of diamond crystals have been derived. They contain the energy of sublimation, the compressibility and the lattice constant. Numerical calculations have been carried out for Si and Sn, and the results reflect fundamental properties of this potential. The obtained Morse potential parameters have been used for calculation of the anharmonic correlated effective potentials of these crystals in XAFS theory showing clearly anharmonic effects . ...

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  • The Texas Instrument TMS320VC5510 DSK’s calculation abilitiy with different program languages is investigated for minimum the DSP’s measurement time. The steps of Monte Carlo simulations embedded into the DSK’s flash through the DSK’s JTAG interface for optical parameters measurement including absorption coefficient µ a , scattering coefficient µ s and anisotropy g are presented. The obtained results for diluted milk standard samples are also reported.

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  • Height and weight of the subjects were measured using standard procedures. The weight was measured using SECA balance with minimum of cloths to the nearest of 100 gms and height was measured using an anthropometric rod to the minimum of 0.5 cm. Body mass index (BMI : weight in kg/height in meters2 ) was calculated from heights and weights. A value ≤ 18.5 is considered as a cut-off point for chronic energy deficiency (CED) or undernutrition (thinness), while BMI ≥ 25 is considered as overweight or obese. Prevalence of diseases in both groups separately was calculated.

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  • During the years surrounding the new millennium, the field of vibrational optical activity (VOA), comprised principally of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA), underwent a transition from a specialized area of research that had been practiced by a handful of pioneers into an important newfield of spectroscopy practiced by an increasing number of scientists worldwide. This transition was made possible by the development of commercial instrumentation and software for the routine measurement and quantum chemical calculation ofVOA.

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  • Weishang Qu, head of modelling at the Millennium Institute, Washington DC, has examined the World Bank’s new sustainability indicators, including genuine savings, and found that they “are very much GDP dependent”. As genuine savings calculations start with GDP figures before adding and subtracting certain values, they will tend to justify increasing real GDP/economic growth as the central measure of development/progress. 22 Nations with strongly positive GDP are far less likely to obtain a weak or negative genuine savings result.

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  • From the epidemiological data (fixed base line increment per 10 µg/m3 PM10 per 1 million inhabitant) on the one hand and the average exposure level of the population on the other hand, the number of health outcomes can be determined. These calculations may be done for the current exposure to particulate matter as well as for a hypothetical situation without road traffic-related air pollution. The difference between the two results corresponds to the number of morbidity and mortality cases attributable to road traffic-related air pollution.

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  • We have developed a new formulation for fast calculation of far-field force of fast multipole method (FMM)in molecular dynamics simulations. FMM is a linear algorithm to calculate force for molecular dynamics simulations. GRAPE is a special-purpose computer dedicated to Coulombic force calculation. It runs 100-1000 times faster than normal computer at the same price. However FMM cannot be implemented directly on GRAPE. We have succeeded to implement FMM on GRAPE and developed a new formulation for far-field force calculation. ...

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  • A new procedure for calculation and analysis of dispersion relation and real atomic vibration of fcc crystals containing dopant atom has been developed using anharmonic effective potential. Analytical expressions for dispersion relation separated by acoustic and optical branches; forbidden zone; effective force constant; Debye frequency and temperature; amplitude and phase of real vibration of atomic chain containing dopant atom have been derived. They contain Morse potential parameters characterizing vibration of each pair of atoms. ...

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