Nature produces

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  • Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy and an important source of many bulk chemicals and speciality chemicals. It is one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources, and helps to meet the world’s rising demand for cleaner energy into the future. However, exploring, producing and bringing gas to the user or converting gas into desired chemicals is a systematical engineering project, and every step requires thorough understanding of gas and the surrounding environment.

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  • Simply put, this book is about how nature is ‘done’, how it is practised, how it materializes as an active partner in and through those practices. Perhaps, unlike many other volumes, I am not especially concerned here with how nature is imagined, represented, thought or conceived. Rather, imagining, representing and thinking are treated as activities which take their place alongside many other practices (like growing, infecting, digging, counting), some of which do not have people at their centre. This last point is crucial.

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  • The annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniencies of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations. According, therefore, as this produce, or what is purchased with it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those who are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied with all the necessaries and conveniencies for which it has occasion. But this proportion must in...

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  • In the following we give an account of a computer program for the translation of natural languages. The program has the following features: (1) it is adaptable to the translation of any two natural languages, not just to some particular pair; (2) it is a self-modifying program—that is, given the information that it has produced an incorrect translation, together with the translation which it should have produced according to the linguistic judgment of an operator, it will modify itself so as to eliminate the cause of the incorrect translation....

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  • To improve the interaction between students and an intelligent tutoring system, we developed two Natural Language generators, that we systematically evaluated in a three way comparison that included the original system as well. We found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Specifically, it appears that functional aggregation is responsible for the improvement.

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  • This paper describes an all level approach on statistical natural language translation (SNLT). W i t h o u t any predefined knowledge the system learns a statistical translation lexicon (STL), word classes (WCs) and translation rules (TRs) from a parallel corpus thereby producing a generalized form of a word alignment (WA). The translation process itself is realized as a beam search.

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  • The system achieves conceptual generation using a discourse schema system [McKnent selects items from a knowledge base and orders them ewon 1985, Paris 1985]; stylistic generation will be ruleinto a message to address some discourse goal. This mes- based. The revision component will review the generated sage is passed to the stylistic component that makes lex- text and produce recommendations to the conceptual and ical and syntactic choices to produce a natural language stylistic components as to how to improve the text. ...

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  • We demonstrate an open-source natural language generation engine that produces descriptions of entities and classes in English and Greek from OWL ontologies that have been annotated with linguistic and user modeling information expressed in RDF . We also demonstrate an accompanying plug-in for the Prot´ g´ ontology editor, e e which can be used to create the ontology’s annotations and generate previews of the resulting texts by invoking the generation engine.

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  • We derive the rhetorical structures of texts by means of two new, surface-form-based algorithms: one that identifies discourse usages of cue phrases and breaks sentences into clauses, and one that produces valid rhetorical structure trees for unrestricted natural language texts. The algorithms use information that was derived from a corpus analysis of cue phrases.

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  • Fe-Pt materials have been widely prepared by vacuum evaporation technique. Recently, chemical and physicochemical methods have been successfully used to make Fe-Pt nanoparticles, thin films. This paper reported another physicochemical method, namely sonoelectrodeposition, to produce Fe-Pt nanoparticles. In the sonoelectrodeposition, the electrodeposition process was assisted with a sonicator. The Ti horn of the sonicator played a role as the cathode on which Fe-Pt nanoparticles were deposited.

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  • This paper describes a novel approach for the automatic generation and evaluation of a trivial dialogue phrases database. A trivial dialogue phrase is defined as an expression used by a chatbot program as the answer of a user input. A transfer-like genetic algorithm (GA) method is used to generating the trivial dialogue phrases for the creation of a natural language generation (NLG) knowledge base. The automatic evaluation of a generated phrase is performed by producing n-grams and retrieving their frequencies from the World Wide Web (WWW).

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  • This paper describes how a language-planning system can produce natural-language referring expressions that satisfy multiple goals. It describes a formal representation for reasoning about several agents' mutual knowledge using possible-worlds semantics and the general organization of a system that uses the formalism to reason about plans combining physical and linguistic actions at different levels of abstraction.

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  • In the new Head-driven Phrase Structure G r a m m a r (HPSG) language processing system that is currently under development at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, the Montagovian semantics of the earlier GPSG system (see [Gawron et al. 19821) is replaced by a radically different approach with a number of distinct advantages.

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  • We outline a model of generation with revision, focusing on improving textual coherence. We argue that high quality text is more easily produced by iteratively revising and regenerating, as people do, rather than by using an architecturally more complex single pass generator. As a general area of study, the revision process presents interesting problems: Recognition of flaws in text requires a descriptive theory of what constitutes well written prose and a parser which can build a representation in those terms. Improving text requires associating flaws with strategies for improvement.

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  • We consider the structural descriptions produced by various grammatical formalisms in ~ of the complexity of the paths and the relationship between paths in the sets of structural descriptions that each system can generate. In considering the relationship between formalisms, we show that it is useful to abstract away from the details of the formalism, and examine the nature of their derivation process as reflected by properties of their deriva:ion trees.

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  • A user may typically need to combine the strengths of more than one system in order to perform a task. In this paper, we describe a component of the Janus natural language interface that translates intensional logic expressions representing the meaning of a request into executable code for each application program, chooses which combination of application systems to use, and designs the transfer of data among them in order to provide an answer.

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  • Our goal is to improve the contextual appropriateness of spoken output in a dialogue system. We explore the use of the information state to determine the information structure of system utterances. We concentrate on the realization of information structure by intonation. We present the results of evaluating the contextual appropriateness of varied system output produced with a text-to-speech synthesis system that supports intonation annotation.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'u s produce industry and labor', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Natural systems for the treatment and management of municipal and industrial wastewaters and residuals feature processes that use minimal energy and minimal or no chemicals, and they produce relatively lower amounts of residual solids. This book is intended for the practicing engineers and scientists who are involved in the planning, design, construction, evaluation, and operation of wastewater management facilities.

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  • The annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations. According therefore as this produce, or what is purchased with it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those who are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied with all the necessaries and conveniences for which it has occasion....

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