Neck

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  • Short Neck Muscles The following three muscles are located on the back of the neck, just behind the skull: the obliquus capitis caudalis, the obliquus capitis cranialis, and the rectus capitis dorsalis major. They are covered by narrow and wide tendons and thin muscles, yet they help create the fullness on the back of the neck, determined in large part by the width of the atlas (the first neck vertebra) and the vertical projection of the axis (the second neck vertebra).

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 16. Back and Neck Pain Back and Neck Pain: Introduction The importance of back and neck pain in our society is underscored by the following: (1) the cost of back pain in the United States is ~$100 billion annually, including direct health care expenses plus costs due to loss of productivity; (2) back symptoms are the most common cause of disability in those

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  • The head and neck is a region of considerable anatomical and functional complexity, making the accurate staging of a head and neck neoplasm a challenging task. The clinician often detects pathology, but may not appreciate, based on the physical examination, the entire submucosal tumor extension, nor the possible regional and distant disease spread. The introduction of CT and MRI has revolutionized head and neck radiology. Current radiological modalities provide a reliable visualization of the head and neck structures to an unprecedented level of detail.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 84. Head and Neck Cancer Head and Neck Cancer: Introduction Epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck arise from the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area and typically are squamous cell in origin. This category includes tumors of the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Tumors of the salivary glands differ from the more common carcinomas of the head and neck in etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy. Thyroid malignancies are described in Chap. 335.

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  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck affects more than 40,000 people each year in the U.S., and at least 13,000 people each year die of this disease. In many countries, oral cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer incidence, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sadly, these statistics have not improved despite clear delineation of tobacco and alcohol as contributory or etiologic in at least 80% of cases.

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  • Head and Neck Cancer: Treatment Patients with head and neck cancer can be categorized into three clinical groups: those with localized disease, those with locally or regionally advanced disease, and those with recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Comorbidities associated with tobacco and alcohol abuse can affect treatment outcome and define long-term risks for patients who are cured of their disease. Localized Disease Nearly one-third of patients have localized disease; that is, T1 or T2 (stage I or stage II) lesions without detectable lymph node involvement or distant metastases.

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  • Chemoprevention β-Carotene and cis-retinoic acid can lead to the regression of leukoplakia. However, cis-retinoic acid does not reduce the incidence of second primaries Treatment Complications Complications from treatment of head and neck cancer are usually correlated to the extent of surgery and exposure of normal tissue structures to radiation. Currently, the extent of surgery has been limited or completely replaced by chemotherapy and radiation therapy as the primary approach. Acute complications of radiation include mucositis and dysphagia.

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  • Clinical Presentation and Differential Diagnosis Most head and neck cancers occur after age 50, although these cancers can appear in younger patients, including those without known risk factors. The manifestations vary according to the stage and primary site of the tumor. Patients with nonspecific signs and symptoms in the head and neck area should be evaluated with a thorough otolaryngologic exam, particularly if symptoms persist longer than 2–4 weeks. Cancer of the nasopharynx typically does not cause early symptoms.

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  • Table 84-1 TNM Classification for Head and Neck Cancer (Except Nasopharyngeal) Primary Tumor Site T Grade Oropharynx Hypopharynx T1 0–2 cm 0–2 cm T2 2.

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  • Trauma to the Cervical Spine Trauma to the cervical spine (fractures, subluxation) places the spinal cord at risk for compression. Motor vehicle accidents, violent crimes, or falls account for 87% of spinal cord injuries (Chap. 372). Immediate immobilization of the neck is essential to minimize further spinal cord injury from movement of unstable cervical spine segments. A CT scan is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of acute fractures.

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  • Other Causes of Neck Pain Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (Chap. 314) of the cervical apophyseal joints produces neck pain, stiffness, and limitation of motion. In advanced RA, synovitis of the atlantoaxial joint (C1-C2; Fig. 16-2) may damage the transverse ligament of the atlas, producing forward displacement of the atlas on the axis (atlantoaxial subluxation). Radiologic evidence of atlantoaxial subluxation occurs in 30% of patients with RA. Not surprisingly, the degree of subluxation correlates with the severity of erosive disease.

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  • Shoulder Pain arising from the shoulder can on occasion mimic pain from the spine. If symptoms and signs of radiculopathy are absent, then the differential diagnosis includes mechanical shoulder pain (tendonitis, bursitis, rotator cuff tear, dislocation, adhesive capsulitis, and cuff impingement under the acromion) and referred pain (subdiaphragmatic irritation, angina, Pancoast tumor). Mechanical pain is often worse at night, associated with local shoulder tenderness and aggravated by abduction, internal rotation, or extension of the arm.

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  • The phenomenon known as the McKenzie Method has helped millions of people with chronic back and neck pain. In 7 Steps to a Pain-Free Life, its founder, world-renowned physical therapist Robin McKenzie, shares the innovative program that can save you from a life of pain. 7 Steps to a Pain-Free Life combines and enhances McKenzie's back and neck books that have sold more than 5.5 million copies worldwide.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'head and neck cancer edited by mark agulnik', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Chapter 40 provides knowledge of head, face, and neck trauma. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Describe the mechanisms of injury, assessment, and management of maxillofacial injuries; describe the mechanisms of injury, assessment, and management of ear, eye, and dental injuries; describe the mechanisms of injury, assessment, and management of anterior neck trauma;...

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  • DART MOVE POSITION (FRONT) B/24 UNDER ARM DART SHOULDER POINT DART LOW UNDER ARM DART ARMHOLE DART SHOULDER DART WAIST DART BREAST POINT(B.P) NECK POINT DART NECK LINE DART CENTER FRONT WAIST DART CENTER FRONT LINE DART CENTER FRONT NECK

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  • Of the historical events that have shaped the character of the specialty dealing with ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders, probably none has carried the impact as did the appearance of antimicrobial agents for clinical use. It is a story that continues to unfold even today with the appearance of new antibiotics every year and the continuing emergence of new strains of resistant bacteria. Such change gives our knowledge a short half-life, and perhaps in no other clinical discipline is reeducation as important as in the use of antimicrobials....

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  • Pathology of the Head and Neck is an easy sounding title for a complex subject matter. This title stands for an accumulation of diverse diseases occurring in different organs whose relationship to each other consists in the fact that they are located between the base of the skull and the thoracic aperture.

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  • Local pain is caused by stretching of pain-sensitive structures that compress or irritate sensory nerve endings. The site of the pain is near the affected part of the back. Pain referred to the back may arise from abdominal or pelvic viscera. The pain is usually described as primarily abdominal or pelvic but is accompanied by back pain and usually unaffected by posture. The patient may occasionally complain of back pain only. Pain of spine origin may be located in the back or referred to the buttocks or legs. Diseases affecting the upper lumbar spine tend to refer pain to the lumbar...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

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