Negative staining

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  • Tham khảo sách 'laboratory exercises in microbiology, fifth edition', khoa học tự nhiên, công nghệ sinh học phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Moraxella catarrhalis is a component of the normal bacterial flora of the upper airways and has been increasingly recognized as a cause of otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchopulmonary infection. Over the past several decades, this organism has been variously designated as Micrococcus catarrhalis, Neisseria catarrhalis, and Branhamella catarrhalis. Bacteriology and Immunity On Gram's staining, M. catarrhalis organisms appear as gram-negative cocci, sometimes occurring in pairs and having the side-by-side kidneybean configuration of Neisseria (Fig. 138-1).

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  • Bacteria are non-chlorophyllated unicellular organisms that reproduce by fission and do not present nuclear envelope. Gram´s stain is a staining technique used to classify bacteria based on the different characteristic of their cell walls. Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria are determined by the amount and location of peptidoglycan in the cell wall, exhibiting different chemical compositions and structures, cell-wall permeabilities, physiologies, metabolisms, and pathogenicities.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 138. Moraxella Infections Moraxella catarrhalis The gram-negative coccus Moraxella catarrhalis is a component of the normal bacterial flora of the upper airways and has been increasingly recognized as a cause of otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchopulmonary infection. Over the past several decades, this organism has been variously designated as Micrococcus catarrhalis, Neisseria catarrhalis, and Branhamella catarrhalis. Bacteriology and Immunity On Gram's staining, M.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 139. Haemophilus Infections Haemophilus influenzae Microbiology Haemophilus influenzae was first recognized in 1892 by Pfeiffer, who erroneously concluded that the bacterium was the cause of influenza. The bacterium is a small (1- by 0.3-µm) gram-negative organism of variable shape; hence, it is often described as a pleomorphic coccobacillus. In clinical specimens such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum, it frequently stains only faintly with phenosafranin and therefore can easily be overlooked. H.

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  • Nontypable H. influenzae Nontypable H. influenzae is a common cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults. Nontypable H. influenzae pneumonia is especially common among patients with COPD or AIDS. The clinical features of H. influenzae pneumonia are similar to those of other types of bacterial pneumonia (including pneumococcal pneumonia). Patients present with fever, cough, and purulent sputum, usually of several days' duration. Chest radiography reveals alveolar infiltrates in a patchy or lobar distribution.

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  • Haemophilus influenzae was first recognized in 1892 by Pfeiffer, who erroneously concluded that the bacterium was the cause of influenza. The bacterium is a small (1- by 0.3-µm) gram-negative organism of variable shape; hence, it is often described as a pleomorphic coccobacillus. In clinical specimens such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum, it frequently stains only faintly with phenosafranin and therefore can easily be overlooked. H. influenzae grows both aerobically and anaerobically.

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  • Monoclonal antibodies directed against PSA clone 28A4 (Novacastro, UK) in a concentration of 2,5μg/ml were used to detect prostate cells, and identified using a detection system based on alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase (LSAB2 DAKO, USA) with new-fuschin as the chromogen. To permit the rapid identification of positive cells there was no counter staining with Mayer´s hematoxilin. Levisamole (DAKO, USA) was used as an inhibitor of endogenous alkaline phosphatase, with positive and negative controls.

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  • Primary Bacterial Peritonitis: Treatment Treatment for PBP is directed at the isolate from blood or peritoneal fluid. Gram's staining of peritoneal fluid often gives negative results in PBP. Therefore, until culture results become available, therapy should cover gram-negative aerobic bacilli and gram-positive cocci. Third-generation cephalosporins such as cefotaxime (2 g q8h, administered IV) provide reasonable initial coverage in moderately ill patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (e.g., piperacillin/tazobactam, 3.

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  • Treat urethritis promptly, while test results are pending. Table 124-4 summarizes the steps in management of sexually active men with urethral discharge and/or dysuria. Table 124-4 Management of Urethral Discharge in Men Usual causes Usual initial evaluation Chlamydia trachomatis pyuria Neisseria gonorrhoeae Demonstration of urethral discharge or Exclusion of local or systemic Mycoplasma genitalium complications Ureaplasma urealyticum Urethral Gram's stain to confirm urethritis, detect gram-negative diplococci Trichomonas vaginalis Test for N. gonorrhoeae, C.

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  • A pre-tested questionnaire was used by a trained counselor to obtain information on demographic characteristics, social and medical history from the subjects. Other important information about PTB such as previous BCG vaccination, contact with an index case and exposure to tuberculin skin test were also obtained. Laboratory investigations: Three early morning sputum were collected from each consenting asymptomatic subject. The samples were transported to TB laboratory of the department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, UCH, for immediate processing.

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  • Thin and thick blood smears were also collected from participants who accepted malaria testing. Blood slides were stained with Giemsa stain that was prepared by the laboratory in advance of the field work. Parasite densities were calculated by counting the number of asexual stage parasites/200 white blood cells (WBCs), assuming 6000 WBCs/dl of blood. Blood smears were considered negative if no parasites were found after counting 200 fields. An informed consent form was read to the eligible person or parent/responsible adult of the child or teenager ages 15-18 years old.

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