Aber, J.D. (1992) Nitrogen cycling and nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Aber, J.D. & Federer, C.A. (1992) A generalised, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems.
Despite a variety of processes and the availability of raw-material sources, the
widespread utilisation of annual plants in pulping has not been technically or
economically feasible in Western countries due to the lack of a simple and
environmentally efficient pulping method and the problems associated with raw
material storage and logistics.
An ideal non-wood pulping process is simple and environmentally efficient
and can be applied on a small scale.
Mining wastes can cause significant ecological destruction.
Often, solid mine wastes are dumped into streams,
destroying habitat and causing siltation and heavy metal
and other contamination. Even when such wastes are
stored out of water channels, trace materials can leach into
surface waters and infiltrate into local groundwater. Fine-
grained tailings can wash into local waterways and degrade
streams by covering and filling coarser-grained substrates.
In the late 1980’s, a considerable amount of research addressing the
effects of acidic deposition was begun, much of it related to the Congressionally
mandated National Atmospheric Precipitation Assessment Program
(NAPAP). As a result of the 10-year NAPAP program, effects on human
health, materials, structures, visibility and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
were evaluated. As a result of NAPAP funded research, negative effects of
acidic deposition were documented on freshwater lakes in the Adirondacks
and on the red spruce of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians....
Chapter 55 - Ecosystems, this chapter explain how the first and second laws of thermodynamics apply to ecosystems; define and compare gross primary production, net primary production, and standing crop; explain why energy flows but nutrients cycle within an ecosystem; explain what factors may limit primary production in aquatic ecosystems;...
Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Assets
manufactured by the Company include direct manufacturing costs, production overheads
and interest charges incurred during the construction period. Government grants are
deducted from the cost of the related asset. Depreciation is calculated using the
straight-line method over the expected economic life of the asset. Depreciation of special
tooling costs is based on the expected future economic benefit of these tools.
Until the early 1980s, banking was largely a local
business, reflecting the limits placed by the states
on intra- and interstate branching. At year-end
1977, 20 states allowed statewide branching, and
the remaining 30 states placed limits on intrastate
branching.17 However, as the benefits of geo-
graphic diversification became better understood,
many states began to lift the legal constraints on
branching. By mid-1986, 26 states allowed
statewide branch banking, while only 9 restricted
banks to a unit banking business. By 2002, only 4
states placed any limits on branching.
The term “NRSRO” was originally adopted by the Commission in 1975 solely for
determining capital charges on different grades of debt securities under the Net Capital
The Net Capital Rule requires broker-dealers, when computing net capital, to
deduct from their net worth certain percentages of the market value of their proprietary
Not surprisingly, personal service is the number
one priority at Airdrie Savings Bank and it
takes great care to avoid any disruption to its
However, the latest round of compliance
mandates from the Payment Card Industry
had taken its card processing system to the
brink. The incumbent supplier was unwilling to
make the changes necessary to meet the new
regulations instead choosing to sunset
This left Airdrie Savings Bank with a pressing
need to invest in a new system before the
compliance mandate came into effect.
The major domestic support measure besides the milk quota system is public intervention
(buying into storage) for butter and SMP. By administering the market price for butter and
SMP through intervention purchases, the EU aims to put a floor on the producer milk price. If
market demand is satisfied, minor surpluses or deficits will, in principle, show up through
changes in the level of intervention stocks, but the market prices will not fall much below the
respective intervention levels. ...
This framework will provide not only a rigorous testing and restriction procedure for all
chemicals on the European market, but also provide a highly valuable centralised information
source which could be used by public purchasers. However, it will take some years before the
system will be fully operational and comprehensive.
In relation to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, even though no standard
regulation exists for furniture, there is a Directive for the reduction of industrial emissions of
VOCs, Directive 1999/13/EC, amended by Directive 2004/42/EC.
It is evident that Proudhon is more of a doctrinaire than a theorist: science is not concerned with morals and only studies facts. Society is a product of circumstances; its transformation is a political and not a scientific problem.
Butler attributed the primary cost differences between organic and conventional operations to
reduced milk production, slightly higher feed and labor costs, and significantly higher herd
replacement and transition costs. Herd replacement costs were significantly higher for organic
producers because replacement heifers must be raised organically, or must be purchased from
organic heifer breeders.