Net primary productivity

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: Synthesis and analysis of biomass and net primary productivity in Chinese forests...

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  • Despite a variety of processes and the availability of raw-material sources, the widespread utilisation of annual plants in pulping has not been technically or economically feasible in Western countries due to the lack of a simple and environmentally efficient pulping method and the problems associated with raw material storage and logistics. An ideal non-wood pulping process is simple and environmentally efficient and can be applied on a small scale.

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  • References Aber, J.D. (1992) Nitrogen cycling and nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Aber, J.D. & Federer, C.A. (1992) A generalised, lumped-parameter model of photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and net primary production in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems.

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  • Mining wastes can cause significant ecological destruction. Often, solid mine wastes are dumped into streams, destroying habitat and causing siltation and heavy metal and other contamination. Even when such wastes are stored out of water channels, trace materials can leach into surface waters and infiltrate into local groundwater. Fine- grained tailings can wash into local waterways and degrade streams by covering and filling coarser-grained substrates.

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  • In the late 1980’s, a considerable amount of research addressing the effects of acidic deposition was begun, much of it related to the Congressionally mandated National Atmospheric Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). As a result of the 10-year NAPAP program, effects on human health, materials, structures, visibility and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were evaluated. As a result of NAPAP funded research, negative effects of acidic deposition were documented on freshwater lakes in the Adirondacks and on the red spruce of the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians....

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  • Chapter 55 - Ecosystems, this chapter explain how the first and second laws of thermodynamics apply to ecosystems; define and compare gross primary production, net primary production, and standing crop; explain why energy flows but nutrients cycle within an ecosystem; explain what factors may limit primary production in aquatic ecosystems;...

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  • Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Assets manufactured by the Company include direct manufacturing costs, production overheads and interest charges incurred during the construction period. Government grants are deducted from the cost of the related asset. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the expected economic life of the asset. Depreciation of special tooling costs is based on the expected future economic benefit of these tools.

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  • Until the early 1980s, banking was largely a local business, reflecting the limits placed by the states on intra- and interstate branching. At year-end 1977, 20 states allowed statewide branching, and the remaining 30 states placed limits on intrastate branching.17 However, as the benefits of geo- graphic diversification became better understood, many states began to lift the legal constraints on branching. By mid-1986, 26 states allowed statewide branch banking, while only 9 restricted banks to a unit banking business. By 2002, only 4 states placed any limits on branching.

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  • The term “NRSRO” was originally adopted by the Commission in 1975 solely for determining capital charges on different grades of debt securities under the Net Capital Rule. 9 The Net Capital Rule requires broker-dealers, when computing net capital, to deduct from their net worth certain percentages of the market value of their proprietary securities positions.

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  • Not surprisingly, personal service is the number one priority at Airdrie Savings Bank and it takes great care to avoid any disruption to its customers. However, the latest round of compliance mandates from the Payment Card Industry had taken its card processing system to the brink. The incumbent supplier was unwilling to make the changes necessary to meet the new regulations instead choosing to sunset the product. This left Airdrie Savings Bank with a pressing need to invest in a new system before the compliance mandate came into effect.

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  • The major domestic support measure besides the milk quota system is public intervention (buying into storage) for butter and SMP. By administering the market price for butter and SMP through intervention purchases, the EU aims to put a floor on the producer milk price. If market demand is satisfied, minor surpluses or deficits will, in principle, show up through changes in the level of intervention stocks, but the market prices will not fall much below the respective intervention levels. ...

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  • This framework will provide not only a rigorous testing and restriction procedure for all chemicals on the European market, but also provide a highly valuable centralised information source which could be used by public purchasers. However, it will take some years before the system will be fully operational and comprehensive. In relation to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, even though no standard regulation exists for furniture, there is a Directive for the reduction of industrial emissions of VOCs, Directive 1999/13/EC, amended by Directive 2004/42/EC.

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  • It is evident that Proudhon is more of a doctrinaire than a theorist: science is not concerned with morals and only studies facts. Society is a product of circumstances; its transformation is a political and not a scientific problem.

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  • Butler attributed the primary cost differences between organic and conventional operations to reduced milk production, slightly higher feed and labor costs, and significantly higher herd replacement and transition costs. Herd replacement costs were significantly higher for organic producers because replacement heifers must be raised organically, or must be purchased from organic heifer breeders.

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