Senescence is a biological process that causes a progressive deterioration of structure and function of all organs chronologically. Recent studies have revealed the detailed molecular mechanisms of senescence using cell culture system and experimental organisms. It is thought that senescence is a potential cause for the development of various age-related disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease
Recent studies indicate that the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene, which is located on chromosome
21q22.2 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome (DS), may play a signifi-cant role in developmental brain defects and in early onset neurodegenera-tion, neuronal loss and dementia in DS.
Neurodegenerative disorders are common and devastating. Rationally, the most
effective treatments will target pathogenetic mechanisms. While alternative approaches,
based on alleviating the symptoms of patients with Alzheimer disease,
Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, prion disorders or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,
can be expected to reduce suffering, studies of pathogenesis of these agerelated
disorderswill be most important for enabling early diagnosis and the creation
of preventative and curative treatments.
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and
Parkinson’s diseases, affect millions of people worldwide and currently there
are few effective treatments and no cures for these diseases. Transgenic mice
expressing human transgenes for huntingtin, amyloid precursor protein, and
other genes associated with familial forms of neurodegenerative disease in
humans provide remarkable tools for studying neurodegeneration because
they mimic many of the pathological and behavioural features of the human
(BQ) Part 2 the book "Case-Based brain imaging" presents the following contents: Neurodegenerative/white matter diseases/metabolic, trauma, congenital/developmental malformations and syndromes, cranial nerves.
Representing one of the most important lifestyle factors, diet can strongly influence
the incidence and onset of cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.
Recent dietary intervention studies in several mammalian species, including humans,
with flavonoid-rich foods, in particular Vitis vinifera (grape), Camellia sinensis (tea),
Theobroma cacao (cocoa), and Vaccinium spp. (blueberry), have indicated an ability
of these dietary components to improve memory and learning.
Huang, Yen and Lu (Chapter 18) review the role of SPECT in the diagnosis of
idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and its differentiation from other conditions
characterised by parkinsonisms such as dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and
vascular parkinsonism. Accurate diagnosis is clearly critical for treatment and
prognosis, and the authors provide a very useful overview of recent developments in
dopamine transporter imaging which have led to important advances in this area.
Population Screening Mass genetic screening programs require tests of high enough sensitivity and specificity to be cost-effective. An effective screening program should fulfill the following criteria: that the tested disorder is prevalent and serious; that it can be influenced presymptomatically through lifestyle changes, screening, or medications; and that identification of risk does not result in undue discrimination or harm.
Numerous authors proposed chapters on their work, and those presented here are the
fruit of those proposals. As editor of this book, it has been my pleasure to collaborate
with these many, fine contributing scientists. This text brings forth a great amount of
fresh information on the biogeography and ecology of poorly known taxa and
landscapes, and explores biogeographic processes not previously studied. The
assembled work is an anthology of issues in modern biogeography, with topics
ranging across regional to global spatial scales, and ecological to evolutionary
Oxidative stress state is involved in the aging process as well as in a vast array of
pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular complications, diabetes,
cancer, and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.
Though it is widely recognized that the population of the United States is aging,
much of our current understanding in the field of individual decision making is based on
data from student populations. While this could be a consequence of subject availability,
it may reflect a common though largely unsubstantiated belief that decision making
ability declines with aging (Peters 2000). Many older individuals are productive and
intellectually viable throughout their lives. Still, others are vulnerable to dementia and
neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Other Diseases The power and versatility of gene transfer approaches are such that there are few serious disease entities for which gene transfer therapies are not under development. Besides those already discussed, other areas of interest include gene therapies for HIV and for neurodegenerative disorders.
Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by a mediator imbalance with a
predominance of vasoconstriction and cell proliferation involving all layers of the
vessel. The end result is an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, increased
workload of the right ventricle, and right ventricular hypertrophy to maintain an
adequate flow. Subsequently, right ventricular dilatation ensues the signs and
symptoms of right heart failure occurence.
Among all the clinical indications for which radiologists, nuclear medicine physicians,
neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists (and others examining disorders of
the brain) order and read brain PET scans, demand is greatest for those pertaining
to dementia and related disorders. This demand is driven by the sheer prevalence of
those conditions, coupled with the fact that the differential diagnosis for causes of
cognitive impairment is wide and often difficult to distinguish clinically.
Learners enrolled in all healthcare training programs need to have a basic understanding
of medical genetics so that they can successfully transition from students to clinicians.
The field of medical genetics is advancing at a fast pace and is becoming increasingly integral
to all aspects of medicine. This fact emphasizes the need for every practicing clinician
and faculty member to develop an in-depth knowledge of the principles of human genetics,
given that they are applicable to such a wide variety of clinical presentations.
Brain morphology is in constant change from the very beginning of the neurodevelopment in human beings. The characterization of the brain morphology and its biological implications on a specific subject is a complex task which requires efficient computational approaches. Radiology has traditionally assessed the main brain changes in different alterations from a macroscopic point of view, thus, not considering subtle changes as a results of neuronal plasticity.
The chapters in this book review the latest advances in the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, highlighting some of the most challenging research topics. The focus is mainly on how this basic cell defense mechanism comes into play in various pathologies, including liver diseases, myopathies, infectious diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. In these diseases, the contradictory autophagy roles of cell survival versus cell death emphasize the necessity of taking into account this double-edged nature in future development of already promising, autophagy- modulating, therapies....
DNA testing is performed by mutational analysis or linkage studies in individuals at risk for a genetic disorder known to be present in a family. Mass screening programs require tests of high sensitivity and specificity to be costeffective. Prerequisites for the success of genetic screening programs include the following: that the disorder is potentially serious; that it can be influenced at a presymptomatic stage by changes in behavior, diet, and/or pharmaceutical manipulations; and that the screening does not result in any harm or discrimination.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related, progressive degenerative dis-order that is characterized by synapse and neuron loss in the brain and the
accumulation of protein-containing deposits (referred to as ‘senile plaques’)
and neurofibrillary tangles. Insoluble amyloid b-peptide (Ab) fibrillar
aggregates found in extracellular plaques have long been thought to cause
the neurodegenerative cascades of AD.