The deployment of ‘new’ environmental policy instruments (NEPIs), namely
eco-taxes and other market-based instruments (MBIs), voluntary agreements
(VAs) and informational devices such as eco-labels, has grown spectacularly in
recent years. In 1987, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) [OECD, 1994:177] reported that most national
environmental policies still relied upon a regulatory or ‘command and control’
mode of action, but since then the number of MBIs has grown ‘substantially’
The Delaware River Basin Commission is a regulatory body that was established in 1961 by a
congressional compact. It includes a division engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers and
representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware who are appointed
individually by the executive office in each state . Any decision of the Commission involves the
approval of all members. The Commission has full water resource management authority, including
water allocations and diversions.
Despite the great technological advancement experienced in recent years,
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are still used in many applications from the real
world and still play a central role in infrastructure of industrial automation. PLC operate in
the factory-floor level and are responsible typically for implementing logical control,
regulatory control strategies, such as PID and fuzzy-based algorithms, and safety logics.
Usually PLC are interconnected with the supervision level through communication
network, such as Ethernet networks, in order to work in an integrated form....
The mass media proclaimed the above as the new millennium began. Acad-
emics and professionals have been holding conferences about it for a while
now. Designers themselves have insisted on it all along. But what, exactly,
does that statement mean? A proliferation of hip hotels and award-winning
potato peelers do not an era make.
In the last decade rating-based models have become very popular in credit risk management. These systems use the rating of a company as the decisive variable to evaluate the default risk of a bond or loan. The popularity is due to the straightforwardness of the approach, and to the upcoming new capital accord (Basel II), which allows banks to base their capital requirements on internal as well as external rating systems.
Nowadays it is difficult to imagine an area of knowledge that can continue developing
without the use of computers and informatics. It is not different with biology, that has
seen an unpredictable growth in recent decades, with the rise of a new discipline,
bioinformatics, bringing together molecular biology, biotechnology and information
The authors would like to thank the European Agency for Safety and Health
at Work, the Health and Safety Executive, the New Law Journal, the Sheffield
Information Centre, HSE and the Institute of Employment Rights for giving
permission to reproduce materials in this book.
Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, but if any
have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make
the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
With the introduction of genetic engineering of Escherichia coli by Cohen, Boyer
and co-workers in 1973, the way was paved for a completely new approach to
optimisation of existing biotech processes and development of completely new
ones. This lead to new biotech processes for the production of recombinant proteins,
e.g. the production of human insulin by a recombinant E. coli.
Many of us in the social sciences long to transfer knowledge across dis-
ciplinary boundaries in a way that is true to our discipline yet useful to
other disciplines. One way to satisfy this longing is to seize articles that
address similar issues from dif erent disciplines and piece them together
to forge new intellectual coherence that can push forward the frontiers
of knowledge. This seems to be the way in which new i elds of study take
root. While I applaud this style of scholarship and its development, this
book attempts to do something a little dif erent....
This Handbook of Manufacturing Techniques focuses on a new aspect of the drug
development challenge: producing and administering the physical drug products
that we hope are going to provide valuable new pharmacotherapeutic tools in medicine.
These 34 chapters cover the full range of approaches to developing and producing
new formulations and new approaches to drug delivery. Also addressed are
approaches to the issues of producing and packaging these drug products (that is,
many groups and individuals have been motivated to consider the potential for producing ethanol. Across the
country, farmer cooperatives, rural development coalitions, bio-energy advocates and others have gathered to
explore the process and prospects for developing ethanol production facilities. In many cases these efforts have
resulted in the successful development of ethanol plants.
Regulation of the telecommunications industry has traditionally focused
on the supply side of the industry, chiefl y the retail segment of the market.
Since liberalization of the industry has begun, regulation has gradually
shifted to the wholesale segment of the market. The regulatory agencies
have intervened to regulate access and facilitate entry and, hopefully,
investment in infrastructure. This asymmetric regulation has had mixed
In 2008 and 2009, the policy challenge was all about putting
out ﬁres. It was a call to action to address a lot of issues, and
ICI was deeply involved with regulators and other market
participants to sort things out.
This year and last, we’ve been in a dierent phase. It’s not
uncommon after any ﬁnancial crisis to have a regulatory
response, and this one has been broad and deep. Essentially,
the sprint of 2008 has turned into a marathon. You have to call
on dierent skills and dierent muscles. So now, perseverance
is the order of the day. And what...
The late Clark Clifford, advisor to US Presidents and legendaryWashington
attorney, was famed for warning new clients interested in legal
representation before the executive branch and its agencies that he
had no “influence.”1 Clifford claimed only to possess the expertise of
someone intimately familiar with the workings of the US government,
which allowed him to instruct clients on how best to place their views
and needs before administrative agencies and executive branch departments.
The authorities have reached consensus on the way forward for a Debt Resolution Strategy with Cabinet approval of the Zimbabwe Accelerated Arrears Clearance, Debt and Development Strategy (ZAADDS) in 2010.
Dodd-Frank includes a number of provisions requir-
ing increased reporting by private fund managers. Pursu-
ant to Dodd-Frank, the SEC, in its recent amendments to
Form ADV, added a number of items concerning detailed
disclosure of various information concerning private
funds managed by the registered adviser.
Network Regulation and Deregulation
Sincethe 1980s, governmentsinhotpursuitofgeneraleconomicdevelopmenthavemade dramatic changes in the regulation industry. Monopolistic public utilities have been privatized, of and the markets historically dominated by those utilities have been deregulated and opened to competition. This chapter discusses the motivations behind telecommunications deregulation, and explains some of the new regulatory measures which protect customers’ interests by ensuring that quality services are available at a fair price.
THE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS CONSERVATION BOARD Was
created in 1938. Its responsibilities have since been expanded to all
types of energy resources, and it is now known as the Energy Resources
Conservation Board (ERCB). The occasion of the organization's
fiftieth anniversary caused many of us to think about the
significant role that the Board has played in the development of the
province's energy industry.
There is a clear opportunity to improve new car
fuel economy 30% by 2020 and 50% by 2030, in
a cost-effective manner (e.g. low or negative cost
per tonne of CO2). Improving the efficiency of new
cars at this rate would make possible a 50% im-
provement in the average fuel economy of all cars
on the road worldwide by 2050.
My deepest gratitude goes to my teachers and advisors. The Chair of my JSD
Committee, Professor Petros C. Mavroidis, has been a great source of inspira-
tion since the beginning of my studies at Columbia Law School. The ideas and
comments of Professor Harvey J. Goldschmid challenged my thinking and
broadened my horizons. I would also like to thank the editors of the New
Horizons in Law and Economics series for their comments and suggestions,
which have been really helpful. All remaining mistakes are mine....