Nicotine dependence

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" Epidemiology, radiology, and genetics of nicotine dependence in COPD...

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  • Introduction: Nicotine is a main water-soluble alkaloid being contained in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), which acts as an inducing compound for smoking-dependence. Twelve kinds of nicotine metabolites are known in rats [1]. Among them, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine; the half-life (T1/2) of cotinine is much longer (10–20 h) than that of nicotine (24–84 min). The qualitative analysis of cotinine in urine and saliva is being thus carried out as indicators for smoking during its abstinence therapy and for confirming passive smoking.

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  • Psychiatric disorders represent a complex interaction between psychological, developmental, neurobiological, and genetic factors. This book focuses on the neurobiological elements of psychiatric conditions. In the last 30 years, much has been learned about the neuroanatomic, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and molecular elements that contribute to major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, drug dependence, anxiety disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, and dementias.

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  • This book highlights the needs and healthcare concerns of women in their mid life.Women in middle age are often overlooked by medical practitioners. From the end of childbearing to old age, approximately ages 40–65 years, their health needs are complex and changing. This is a time of challenge and opportunity, when the physician and woman working collaboratively can change her health and future. Mid-life healthcare is far more than hormones.

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  • Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins, or sirtuins, are protein deacetylases dependent on nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and are found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In eukaryotes, sirtuins regulate transcriptional repression, recombination, the celldivision cycle, microtubule organization, and cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents. Sirtuins have also been implicated in regulating the molecular mechanisms of aging. The Sir2 catalytic domain,

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  • The nonmedical use of drugs presents social problems with important pharmacological aspects. Social aspects Rewards for the individual Decriminalisation and legalisation Dependence Drugs and sport Tobacco Dependence Nicotine pharmacology Effects of chronic smoking Starting and stopping use Passive smoking Ethyl alcohol Pharmacology Car driving and alcohol Chronic consumption Withdrawal Pregnancy Pharmacological deterrence Psychodysleptics • Experiences with psychodysleptics • Individual substances, especially cannabis Stimulants • cocaine, • amfetamines.

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  • Intraperitoneal injection of choline (30–90 mgÆkg )1 ) produced a dose-dependent increase in serum insulin, glu-cose and choline levels in rats.The increase in serum insulin induced by choline (90 mgÆkg )1 ) was blocked by pretreat-mentwith themuscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, atropine (2 mgÆkg )1 ), pirenzepine (2 mgÆkg )1 ) and 4-diphe-nylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (2 mgÆkg )1 ) or the gangli-onic nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium (15 mgÆkg )1 ).

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