Since the third edition of the present work issued from the press, the nineteenth century has run its course and finished its record. A new era has dawned, not by chronological prescription alone, but to the vital sense of humanity. Novel thoughts are rife; fresh impulses stir the nations; the soughing of the wind of progress strikes every ear. "The old order changeth" more and more swiftly as mental activity becomes intensified. Already many of the scientific doctrines implicitly accepted fifteen years ago begin to wear a superannuated aspect. ...
Sir William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-1769) stands as the first great effort to reduce the English common law to a unified and rational system. Blackstone demonstrated that the English law as a system of justice was comparable to Roman law and the civil law of the Continent. Clearly and elegantly written, the work achieved immediate renown and exerted a powerful influence on legal education in England and in America which was to last into the late nineteenth century. The book is regarded not only as a legal classic but as a literary masterpiece....
During the nineteenth century, which has already receded far enough into the perspective of the past for us to
be able to take a comprehensive view of it, the advance guard of the human race found itself in a position
entirely different from that ever before occupied by it. Through the knowledge of cosmic, animal, and social
evolution gradually accumulated by the laborious and careful studies of special students in every department
of historical research and scientific experiment, a broader and higher state of self-consciousness was attained.
This project began many years ago in the nether regions of Widener
Library at Harvard. As a graduate student in the History of Science,
I became interested in medical views and treatment of women and
studied "the cult of female invalidism" that pervaded American culture
in the late nineteenth century. Browsing through popular magazines
and newspapers of the period, I therefore was surprised to find
images of healthy women—young girls playing croquet and badminton,
ladies exercising at home in loose-fitting garb, college students
riding bikes and rowing boats....
The present volume is a sequel to "A History of English Romanticism in the Eighteenth Century" (New York;
Henry Holt & Co., 1899). References in the footnotes to "Volume I." are to that work. The difficulties of this
second part of my undertaking have been of a kind just opposite to those of the first. As it concerns my
subject, the eighteenth century was an age of beginnings; and the problem was to discover what latent
romanticism existed in the writings of a period whose spirit, upon the whole, was distinctly unromantic.
For millennia, advances in human progress have been tied to our ability to
protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the wastes we produce—ranging
from human waste to the organic and inorganic by-products of everyday living.
Across the world, cultures learned to bury their dead away from their homes and
to burn their waste or make certain that it was carried away by streams and rivers
flowing downstream from their homes. Those cultures that learned this most effectively
thrived. When the industrial revolution took place in the nineteenth century,
rivers again enabled progress.
An introduction to the lives and works of five exceptional African intellectuals based in the former Cape Colony in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this unique work aims to recount and preserve a part of African intellectual heritage which is not widely known. Ntsikana, Tiyo Soga, John Tengo Jabavu, Mpilo Walter Benson Rubusana and Samuel Edward Krune Mqhayi were pioneers within the African community, contributing their thoughts and intellect to various fields, including literature and poetry, politics, religion and journalism....
Curiously enough, in the events which have taken place in the last few years in our "great outside world," we may find incidents so marvelous and inspiring that I cannot hope to equal them with stories of The Land of Oz. turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble.
Neoclassical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily
conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving
the finished marble.
The work of the railroad pioneers in America became the basis for a great surge of
railroad building halfway through the nineteenth century that linked the nation together as
never before. Railroads eventually became the nation’s number one transportation
system, and remained so until the construction of the interstate highway system halfway
through the twentieth century. They were of crucial importance in stimulating economic
expansion, but their ...
Islamic scholars have been critically examining the modus operandi of modern commercial
banks ever since their establishment in the Muslim world in the last decade of the nineteenth
century. As time passed, the consensus emerged among the scholars that the system was
against the principles of Shar¯ı´ah, mainly because of paying/charging returns on loans and
Software development is not a new idea. Ada Lovelace is said to have written the first computer program in the
mid-nineteenth century for the Analytical Engine, the first mechanical computer prototyped by Charles Babbage.
Much time has passed since then, and software development has grown into what is arguably one of the largest
contributors to the development of our species.
Designing good software is hard.
Inventions in steam engines, cotton mills, and iron works converged in the
eighteenth century to propel the First Industrial Revolution. Inventions in
internal combustion engines, electrification, and steelmaking in the nineteenth
century ushered in the Second Industrial Revolution. Today, twentieth-century
inventions in digital technology are being conjoined with twenty-first-century
innovations in software, materials and advanced manufacturing processes,
robotics, and web-based services to inaugurate the Third Industrial Revolution.
This is an insider's account of 50 years of genetic studies of the soil-inhabiting microbes that produce most of the antibiotics used to treat infections, as well as anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and immunosuppressant drugs. The book begins by describing how these microbes - the actinomycetes - were discovered in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but remained a 'Cinderella' group until, in the 1940s, they shot to prominence with the discovery of streptomycin, the first effective treatment for tuberculosis and only the second antibiotic after penicillin to become a medical marvel.
Concrete has been in use as a primary building material since Roman times. As it is
strong in compression but weak in tension, it was used in arches, vaults and walls
where it is stressed principally in compression.
In the mid-nineteenth century, it was discovered that iron and later steel bars could
be embedded in the concrete, effectively giving it tensile strength. This allowed it to be
used in beams and slabs, where it worked in bending. Buildings, bridges, retaining walls
and many other structures were made in this reinforced concrete.
Scientists and mathematicians of the nineteenth century laid the foundation of telecommunication and wireless technology, which has affected all facets of modern society. In 1864, James C. Maxwell put forth fundamental relations of electromagnetic ®elds that not only summed up the research ®ndings of Laplace, Poisson, Faraday, Gauss, and others but also predicted the propagation of electrical signals through space. Heinrich Hertz subsequently veri®ed this in 1887 and Guglielmo Marconi successfully transmitted wireless signals across the Atlantic Ocean in 1900...
My interest in urban design began in the mid 1950s
with Professor McCaughan’s history of planning
lectures given in the then Department of Civic
Design, University of Liverpool. At those lectures
‘Mac’ made it quite clear that he was a follower of
Camillo Sitte, a Viennese architect whose main work
dated from the last decade of the nineteenth century.
In the nineteenth century, scientists, mathematician, engineers and innovators started
investigating electromagnetism. The theory that underpins wireless communications was
formed by Maxwell. Early demonstrations took place by Hertz, Tesla and others. Marconi
demonstrated the first wireless transmission. Since then, the range of applications has
expanded at an immense rate, together with the underpinning technology. The rate of
development has been incredible and today the level of technical and commercial maturity
is very high.
FOR MORE THAN 150 years, their
names were synonymous with Wall Street. The most successful became
the subjects of folklore, envy, and political vilification, and notorious
symbols of wealth and power. No longer household names today,
in the nineteenth century many had barroom songs and jingles written
about them. Before there were sports stars and pop musicians
dominating the news, they were among the first true celebrities in
The British East India Company established "The Hindustan
Bank" in Kolkata and Mumbai in 1770 and later in 1785 established
other banks. In early nineteenth century three Presidency Banks,
i.e., Bank of Bengal, Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras were
established. The first important event in the history of banking in
India took place in 1919 when the Presidency Banks were
amalgamated and Imperial Bank of India was set up.
When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century,
it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them
when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now
that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into
a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.