Nitrogen metabolisms

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  • Chapter 17 (part 1) - Amino acid metabolism: Nitrogen assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Know how different forms of nitrogen get to assimilatable form, know what types of organisms have this enzyme, know the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes below. Know structure of substrates and products, know co-enzymes and co-substrates involved,...

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  • TnrA is a master transcription factor regulating nitrogen metabolism in Bacillus subtilisunder conditions of nitrogen limitation. When the preferred nitrogen source is in excess, feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase (GS) has been shown to bind TnrA and disable its activity.

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  • Aminotransferases catalyse synthetic and degradative reactions of amino acids, and serve as a key linkage between central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. In this study, three aminotransferases (AT1, AT2 and AT3) were purified and characterized fromHydrogenobacter thermophilus, a hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic bacterium, which has been reported to possess unique features in its carbon and nitrogen anabolism.

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  • We investigated the role of glutamine synthetases (cytosolic GS1 and chlo-roplast GS2) and glutamate synthases (ferredoxin-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT) in the inorganic nitrogen assimilation and reassimilation into amino acids between bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells for the remo-bilization of amino acids during the early phase of grain filling inZea mays L.

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  • Biological nitrogen fixation is a vital process in the global nitrogen cycle, transforming dinitrogen in the atmosphere into ammonia. Being a very energy-demanding and oxygen-sensitive process, both expression and activity of the nitrogenase enzyme are tightly regu-lated. Rhodospirillum rubrumis a free-living, photosynthetic, purple non-sulfur nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which has been extensively used as a model organism for metabolic and regulatory studies regarding nitrogen fixation.

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  • Plants inhabiting high alpine and nival zones are considered as living in an extreme environment. Extreme environments have been attractive for explorers for centuries, and nowadays they also attract tourists. Fortunately biological science is becoming increasingly aware that these remote habitats provide challenging questions that will help to understand the limits of life functions.

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  • Time-dependent regulation analysis is a new methodology that allows us to unravel, both quantitatively and dynamically, how and when functional changes in the cell are brought about by the interplay of gene expression and metabolism. In this first experimental implementation, we dissect the initial and late response of baker’s yeast upon a switch from glucose-lim-ited growth to nitrogen starvation.

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  • The synthesis includes empirical data from on-going studies of the dehesa and grazing behavior and performance of Iberian pigs finished on acorns. The authors conclude that farmers conserve, prune and reforest oaks to maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage, which result in conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services.

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  • Next, a few words about our strategy. It is well recognized now that one has to go beyond the Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, both from the experimental viewpoint (eg.,because of Dark Energy) and from the theoretical viewpoint (eg., because of the UV incompleteness of quantized Einstein gravity, and the need of its unification with the Standard Model of Elementary Particles). In our approach, the origin of inflation is purely geometrical, ie. is closely related to space-time and gravity.

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  • As discussed in Section I, no prior study examines the relation between corporate governance mechanisms and the likelihood of an earnings restatement. A few studies examine the consequences of earnings restatements. William Kinney and Linda McDaniel analyze the stock price reaction for a sample of 73 firms that restated earnings between 1976 and 1985.18 They find that, on average, stock returns are negative between issuance of erroneous quarterly statements and its corrections.

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  • The Board of Directors will recall that the Government, with the support of the International Community, had requested the African Development Bank to play a lead role in assisting and supporting Zimbabwe’s economic recovery. The Bank has supported Zimbabwe over the past two years in line with the recommendations made in the Country Brief that was approved by the Board of Directors in 2010 (ADB/BD/WP/2010/Approval).

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  • Improvement in the economic and financial outlook since the spring of 2009 reflects a broad and aggressive policy response that has included the initiatives and programs under HERA and TARP as discussed above, other financial stability policies implemented by the FDIC and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, accommodative monetary policy, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA or the Recovery Act).

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  • The presence of nontraded goods in our model increases the relative volatility of nominal and real exchange rates relative to the volatility in the model without nontraded goods. An important aspect of the behavior of exchange rates in our model with nontraded goods hinges on the agent's inability to optimally share the risk associated with country-speci¯c shocks to productivity in the nontraded goods sector. In response to a (persistent) positive shock to productivity in this sector, agents wish to consume and invest more.

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  • The Central Bank today publishes statistics for Q1 2012 on investment funds (IFs) resident in Ireland. Irish resident IFs expanded strongly in Q1 2012, driven by performing global equity markets and apparent expanding investor confidence evident in new subscriptions. When reclassifications are excluded, IFs, measured by total shares/units in issue, increased in value to €819.8 billion at end Q1 2012, up from €768.7 billion at end Q4 2011. This increase is accounted for by revaluations of €34.9 billion and positive net transactions of €16.2 billion. ...

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  • The IDB’s measures of the impact of the funds and the outstanding is- sues and conclusions from the IDB study are summarized here. Despite the large amount of resources that the IDB and the World Bank have been lending to the funds, their scope is small. Only one fund in the region, Nicaragua, spends as much as 1 percent of the gross domes- tic product (GDP) in its fund; only three countries—Chile, Panama, and Uruguay—spend more than US$15 per year per poor person. And the poor countries on average spend less than US$10 a year.

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  • The risk-free yield curve also has fundamental implications for financial stability. It defines the terms of maturity transformation in an economy. Partly because of regulation, the “safe” assets that banks and institutional investors hold on their balance sheets are largely government bonds. The yield on government bonds will influence other risk exposures taken by the financial industry. And it is long-term rates – not short-term rates – that help determine the prices of long-term assets.

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  • Written premium is commonly used in the property/casualty insurance industry as a measure of business growth. Therefore, an understanding of the components of written premium is necessary to evaluate growth correctly. Absent this understanding, a user of written premium information may misinterpret the true growth rate of an insurer, especially during periods of rapid change (such as a change in processing systems or transition to a different type of business.) In the simplest case, the policy premium is known and fixed in advance once the policy is sold.

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  • In describing her art, Louise Nevelson has written: “I do not belong to any movement. As my work is related to the present time, it is bound to be related to that of others, consciously or not....” Her art may be more closely related to her collections of African art, American farm tools, architectural elements, and diverse other fragments of the past and her attraction to the art and architecture of pre-Columbian Mexico and Central America.

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  • These limitations arise because the P2P world is lacking in the areas of semantics, data transformation, and data relationships, yet these are some of the core strengths of the data management community. Queries, views, and integrity constraints can be used to express relationships between existing objects and to define new objects in terms of old ones. Complex queries can be posed across multiple sources, and the results of one query can be materialized and used to answer other queries.

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