Nitrogen pollution

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  • Disagreements involving environmental priorities and strategic approaches, and balancing the relative roles of compliance assistance with enforcement, contribute to the complexity and friction that come with enforcing national pollution control laws. Other contributing factors include the increasing number of statutory and related regulatory pollution control requirements (some with conflicting mandates) and the adequacy of the resources available for their implementation.

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  • We use three models to estimate health damages from PM10. First, we use an air dispersion model to estimate each source’s contribution to annual average ambient levels of PM10 at several thousand receptor locations in Paso del Norte. Next, we use a health effects model to estimate the number of cases of human mortality and morbidity that result from this pollution each year. Finally, we use a valuation model to calculate the dollar values of these health impacts. This section briefly discusses each of these models. A more detailed discussion is available in Blackman et...

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  • I was delighted to respond to an invitation from Ventus Publishing to write a book on atmospheric pollution. It is a topic well enough served by books in the past, but has become increasingly important during these early years of the 21st Century. I believe therefore that there is a place for a review like this one and that notwithstanding the immense activity in the area the book will have a reasonable shelf life. This is because it continually relates the discussion to the principles of physics and chemistry, and these do not change....

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  • Unfortunately, to our knowledge, direct estimates of Mexican WTP for reductions in the health endpoints considered in this paper are not yet available. Therefore, we use WTP parameters (for adult respiratory symptom days, adult reduced activity days, asthma attacks, and chronic bronchitis) that are based on U.S. studies. But given that average income adjusted for purchasing power parity is approximately four times as high in the United States as in Mexico, Mexican WTP may be lower than American WTP. Cultural factors may also cause WTP in the two countries to differ.

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  • We exclude El Paso from this portion of the analysis because Mexicans are the principal victims of air pollution from the sources in our sample, and because differences in Mexican and U.S. census data greatly complicate the analysis. Figure 2 presents the spatial distribution of poverty in Ciudad Juárez, measured as the percentage of the labor force in each AGEB earning less than two times the minimum wage. It shows that the poorer sections of Ciudad Juárez are mostly in the southern and western parts of the city. Figures 3 and 4 map concentrations of PM10 attributable...

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  • In many countries, no comprehensive and coherent policy and legislation exists for water pollution control or for environmental protection (see Case Study XIII, Yemen). This does not prevent water pollution control from taking place before such policies have been formulated and adopted, but the most efficient and effective outcome of water pollution control is obtained within a framework of defined policies, plans and co-ordinating activities.

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  • I was delighted to respond to an invitation from Ventus Publishing to write a book on atmospheric pollution. It is a topic well enough served by books in the past, but has become increasingly important during these early years of the 21st Century. I believe therefore that there is a place for a review like this one and that notwithstanding the immense activity in the area the book will have a reasonable shelf life. This is because it continually relates the discussion to the principles of physics and chemistry, and these do not change....

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  • CHAPTER 65 AIR POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES C. A. Miller United States Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 65.1 SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL 65.1.1 Control Technologies 65.1.2 Alternative Control Strategies 65.1.3 Residue Disposal and Utilization 65.1.4 Costs of Control 2012 20 1 3 2015 2015 2015 65.5 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 2022 65.5.1 Conventional Control Technologies 2023 65.5.

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  • Chương này xem xét bốn trong số các chất ô nhiễm không khí lớn khí sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozon (O3), và carbon monoxide (CO). các tầm quan trọng của những chất gây ô nhiễm không khí khí được nhấn mạnh bởi thực tế là là bốn trong số sáu "Tiêu chuẩn chất ô nhiễm không khí" quy định của Hoa Kỳ Cơ quan Bảo vệ Môi trường (EPA). Chất gây ô nhiễm không khí hai tiêu chí khác là những hợp chất hữu cơ dễ bay hơi (VOC) và chì (Pb).

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  • Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide, water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming, most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.

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  • The British Medical Association ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL DICTIONARY CORONARY ARTERY Superior vena cava Aorta Left main coronary artery Left circumflex artery Pulmonary veins Right main coronary artery Left anterior descending artery Coronary vein Inferior vena cava Descending aorta coronary Any structure that encircles like a crown. The term usually refers to the coronary arteries encircling the heart. It is also sometimes used as a nonmedical term for a heart attack (see myocardial infarction).

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  • 16 Membrane Separation 16.1 OVERVIEW Membrane separation has developed into an important technology for separating VOCs and other gaseous air pollutants from gas streams during the past 15 years. The first commercial application was installed in 1990, and more than 50 systems have been installed in the chemical process industry worldwide.1 The technology utilizes a polymeric membrane that is more permeable to condensable organic vapors, such as C3+ hydrocarbons and aromatics, than it is to noncondensable gases such as methane, ethane, nitrogen, and hydrogen.

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  • If better management (BMP) was adopted in Vietnam there is evidence that the current trends and past environmental degradation can be stopped and even reversed, and shrimp production efficiency can be increased.

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  • The objectives of the present paper are, first, to sketch the broad outlines of how writing skill develops across three stages, as a child matures and learns the craft of composition through late adolescence and into early adulthood. The first two - knowledge-telling and knowledge-transforming - are well documented. A third stage - knowledge crafting - is more speculative, but important for understanding expert or professional levels of writing skill.

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  • Human beings need to breathe oxygen diluted in certain quantity of inert gas for living. In the atmosphere, there is a gas mixture of, mainly, oxygen and nitrogen, in appropriate proportions. However, the air also contains other gases, vapours and aerosols that humans incorporate when breathing and whose composition and concentration vary spatially. Some of these are physiologically inert. Air pollution has become a problem of major concern in the last few decades as it has caused negative effects on human health, nature and properties....

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  • This document focuses on the batch manufacture of organic chemicals in multipurpose plants and addresses the manufacture of a wide range of organic chemicals although not all of them are explicitely named in ANNEX 1 of the Directive. The list is not conclusive but includes, e.g. dyes and pigments, plant health products and biocides, pharmaceutical products (chemical and biological processes), organic explosives, organic intermediates, specialised surfactants, flavours, fragrances, pheromones, plasticisers, vitamins, optical brighteners and flame- retardants.

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  • While there appears to be a rising incidence of problem drinking in the elderly, there are also reports that low risk drinking may provide benefits to older populations. Indeed. arguably most of the supposed benefits of alcohol consumption are to be found in older people. So, for example, the claimed protective effect of alcohol in regard to cardiovascular disease applies to the late middle aged and elderly. For this reason, the recommended optimum level of alcohol consumption for health is higher for the elderly than the young.

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  • Hajo Zeeb reported having received remuneration from employment and con- sultancy for a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of air pollution. He also reported having received research support from a commercial entity or other organization with an interest related to the subject of the meeting. He confirmed having held an office or other position, paid or unpaid, where he may have been expected to represent interests or de- fend a position related to the subject air pollution.

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  • This document presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from health risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The guidelines are based on a comprehensive review and evaluation of the accu- mulated scientific evidence by a multidisciplinary group of experts studying the toxic properties and health effects of these pollutants.

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  • Secondary aerosol is produced by the oxidation of primary gases (sulphur dioxide, SO2, nitrogen oxides, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs,) to sulphuric and nitric acid, and organic vapours, followed by their gas-particle conversion [26, 77]. Finally, some of these acidic gases can be neutralised by reaction with ammonia gas or calcium carbonate (calcite) forming secondary aerosol (ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, calcium sulphate, calcium nitrate).

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