We introduce the basic concepts and develop a theory for
nonequilibrium steady-state biochemical systems applicable
to analyzing large-scale complex isothermal reaction
networks. In terms of the stoichiometric matrix, we dem-onstrate both Kirchhoff’s flux lawR‘J‘ ¼0 over a bio-chemical species, and potential law R‘l‘ ¼0overa
reaction loop. They reflect mass and energy conservation,
The modelling of traffic flow using methods and models from physics has a long history. In recent years especially cellular automata models have allowed for large-scale simulations of large traffic networks faster than real time. On the other hand, these systems are interesting for physicists since they allow to observe genuine nonequilibrium effects. Here the current status of cellular automata models for traffic flow is reviewed with special emphasis on nonequilibrium effects (e.g. phase transitions) induced by on- and off-ramps.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: " Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets
Physics in a New Era: An Overview is the culmination of the National
Research Council survey series Physics in a New Era. The survey was proposed
by the Board on Physics and Astronomy, continuing the tradition of
periodic reviews of physics by the National Research Council. The overview
is the final volume of the survey and was welcomed and supported by
the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The aim of this new interdisciplinary series is to promote the exchange of information
between scientists working in different fields, who are involved in the study of complex
systems, and to foster education and training of young scientists entering this rapidly
developing research area.
DNA of prokaryotes is in a nonequilibrium structural state, characterized as ÔactiveÕ DNA supercoiling. Alterations in this state aect many life processes and a homeostatic control of DNA supercoiling has been suggested [Menzel, R. & Gellert, M. (1983) Cell 34, 105±113]. We here report on a new method for quantifying homeostatic control of the high-energy state of in vivo DNA. The method involves making small perturbation in the expression of topoisomerase I, and measuring the eect on DNA supercoiling of a reporter plasmid and on the expression of DNA gyrase....
The program SORWACO takes both the transport and sorption related
nonequilibrium into account. It calculates the concentration of the pollutant in each
cell at every time step. The concentration in the water flowing out of the last cell is
the concentration of the water that enters the purification or discharge system.
It is possible to calculate the impact of intermittent groundwater recovery on both
the decrease of the concentration during the recovery and the increase when the
recovery is stopped. The groundwater flow is assumed to be steady.
Organic farms extend from market gardens clustered near Australia’s big cities, to dairy farms
scattered along the East Coast to vast cattle stations in the outback. But the organic industry
in Australia is more than the sum of its farms. It is composed of processing facilities, logistics
operations, wholesalers, retailers, exporters, certification organisations and a range of other
individuals and organisations.
On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Ludwig Boltzmann’s death in 1906Vienna’s
prestigious scientific institutions were certainly an appropriate setting for a commemorative
event dedicated to illustrate his legacy by presenting comments on his pioneering
work and developments.
Boltzmann has been a key figure in the development and eventual acceptance of
atomism: although his insights into the structure of matter have certainly vindicated
Democritus’ early intuitions it should be stressed that his work has been influential far
beyond statistical mechanics.