Noninvasive diagnosis

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  • A truly noninvasive medical measurement is any measurement system that does not physically breach the skin or enter the body deeply through an external orifice. Thus, the measurement of body temperature with a thermometer in the mouth, rectum, or ear canal is considered noninvasive, as is the use of an otoscope to examine the outer surface of the eardrum. Similarly, the opthalmoscope and the slit lamp, which shine light in the eyes to examine the retina and the cornea and lens, respectively, are considered noninvasive procedures....

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  • Noninvasive Breast Cancer Breast cancer develops as a series of molecular changes in the epithelial cells that lead to ever more malignant behavior. Increased use of mammography has led to more frequent diagnosis of noninvasive breast cancer. These lesions fall into two groups: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (lobular neoplasia). The management of both entities is controversial. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Proliferation of cytologically malignant breast epithelial cells within the ducts is termed DCIS.

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  • Edema of Heart Failure (See also Chap. 227) The presence of heart disease, as manifested by cardiac enlargement and a gallop rhythm, together with evidence of cardiac failure, such as dyspnea, basilar rales, venous distention, and hepatomegaly, usually indicate that edema results from heart failure. Noninvasive tests, such as echocardiography, may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of heart disease. The edema of heart failure typically occurs in the dependent portions of the body.

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  • Autoantibodies against autologus tumor-associated antigens have been detected in the asymptomatic stage of cancer and can thus serve as biomar-kers for early cancer diagnosis. Moreover, because autoantibodies are found in sera, they can be screened easily using a noninvasive approach. Consequently, many studies have been initiated to identify novel autoanti-bodies relevant to various cancer types.

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  • Ultrasound imaging is considered one of the most powerful techniques for medical diagnosis and is often preferred over other medical imaging modalities because of noninvasive, portable, versatile and low-cost properties (Webb, 2002; Abd-Elmoniem, 2002; Porter, 2001; Shekhar, 2002). A fundamental problem in the field of ultrasound imaging is the speckle noise influence, which is a major limitation on image quality inultrasound imaging.

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