For many random variables, the probability distribution is a specific bell-shaped curve, called the
normal curve, or Gaussian curve. This is the most common and useful distribution in statistics. 1) Standard normal distribution
The standard normal distribution has the probability density function as follows:
This Doctoral dissertation in mathematics: Coderivatives of normal cone mappings and applications
this dissertation studies some proplem related to the genneralized differ - entiation theory of Mordukhovich and its applications. Our main efforts concentrate on computing or estimating the Fréchet coderivative and the Mordukhovich.
Tweets represent a critical source of fresh information, in which named entities occur frequently with rich variations. We study the problem of named entity normalization (NEN) for tweets. Two main challenges are the errors propagated from named entity recognition (NER) and the dearth of information in a single tweet.
Most text message normalization approaches are based on supervised learning and rely on human labeled training data. In addition, the nonstandard words are often categorized into different types and speciﬁc models are designed to tackle each type. In this paper, we propose a uniﬁed letter transformation approach that requires neither pre-categorization nor human supervision.
The standard set of rules deﬁned in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) fails to provide satisfactory analyses for a number of syntactic structures found in natural languages. These structures can be analyzed elegantly by augmenting CCG with a class of rules based on the combinator D (Curry and Feys, 1958). We show two ways to derive the D rules: one based on unary composition and the other based on a logical characterization of CCG’s rule base (Baldridge, 2002).
Social media language contains huge amount and wide variety of nonstandard tokens, created both intentionally and unintentionally by the users. It is of crucial importance to normalize the noisy nonstandard tokens before applying other NLP techniques.
This paper describes the personalized normalization of a multilingual chat system that supports chatting in user defined short-forms or abbreviations. One of the major challenges for multilingual chat realized through machine translation technology is the normalization of non-standard, self-created short-forms in the chat message to standard words before translation.
In recent years, research in natural language processing has increasingly focused on normalizing SMS messages. Different well-deﬁned approaches have been proposed, but the problem remains far from being solved: best systems achieve a 11% Word Error Rate. This paper presents a method that shares similarities with both spell checking and machine translation approaches. The normalization part of the system is entirely based on models trained from a corpus. Evaluated in French by 10-fold-cross validation, the system achieves a 9.3% Word Error Rate and a 0.83 BLEU score. ...
One advantage of Short Messaging Service (SMS) texts bethis pre-translation normalization is that the dihave quite differently from normal written versity in different user groups and domains can texts and have some very special phenombe modeled separately without accessing and ena. To translate SMS texts, traditional adapting the language model of the MT system approaches model such irregularities difor each SMS application. Another advantage is rectly in Machine Translation (MT).
This paper addresses the issue of text normalization, an important yet often overlooked problem in natural language processing. By text normalization, we mean converting ‘informally inputted’ text into the canonical form, by eliminating ‘noises’ in the text and detecting paragraph and sentence boundaries in the text. Previously, text normalization issues were often undertaken in an ad-hoc fashion or studied separately. This paper first gives a formalization of the entire problem.
Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple n-word sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normal-form parsing technique.
This paper introduces document normalization, and addresses the issue of whether controlled document authoring systems can be used in a reverse mode to normalize legacy documents. A paradigm for deep content analysis using such a system is proposed, and an architecture for a document normalization system is described.
In this paper, we present two vector-level software algorithms which essentially eliminate such bit-wise operations for Gaussian normal bases. Our analysis and timing results show that the software implementation of the proposed algorithm is faster than previously reported normal basis multiplication algorithms.
Bài giảng "Emoptysis with normal chest film - Ho ra máu với hình XQ tim phổi bình thường" cung cấp cho người đọc các hình ảnh XQ tim phổi bình thường bệnh ho ra máu, cách xử lý khi ho ra máu với hình tim phổi bình thường. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết.
Database System: Chapter 8 - Normalization for Relational Databases includes Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys (Normalization of Relations, Practical Use of Normal Forms, Definitions of Keys and Attributes Participating in Keys,...), General Normal Form Definitions (For Multiple Keys), BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form).
Chapter 10 present functional dependencies and normalization for relational databases. This chapter includes contents: Informal design guidelines for relational databases, functional dependencies (FDs), normal forms based on primary keys, general normal form definitions (For Multiple Keys), BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form).
(BQ) Part 1 the book "Cerebral angiography normal anatomy and vascular pathology" presents the following contents: Aortic ablationarch and origin of the cranial cerebral arteries, carotid artery, external carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, Extra- and intracranial vertebrobasilar sector,...
(BQ) Part 2 the book "Cerebral angiography normal anatomy and vascular pathology" presents the following contents: Vascular malformations of the central nervous system, dural arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous fistulas, ischemic stroke, spontaneous dissection of carotid and vertebral arteries,...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a separation tool par excellence for the analysis of compounds of wide polarity. Since its inception approximately four decades ago, HPLC has revolutionized numerous disciplines of science and technology. Among the various modes of HPLC, reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography (NPC) are employed most commonly in separation. Normal-phase chromatography was the ﬁrst liquid chromatography mode, discovered by M. S.