All of the workshop participants bring different examples to share, but
some of the experiences of addressing poverty in Latin America and build-
ing up poverty maps have been transferred to Africa and elsewhere. Simi-
larly, from the African experiences, people in Latin America and in other
regions are looking at delegated contract management very carefully.
Lessons can be learned from each other; concrete examples of this have
happened in the past and can happen more forcefully in the future.
Attanasio and Lechene (2002) estimate Engel curves using municipality wage as an instrument for
consumption. They find more reasonable results than when household income is used as an
instrument. We follow them and use municipality wage as an instrument for total consumption. This
obviously precludes the introduction of community fixed effects. In this case the main identification
assumption is that municipality wage is not correlated with the error term once the effect of other
covariates have been taken into account.
The gender gap in each dimension is then quantified
using two types of recent available data: a) published
national statistics and data from international
organizations, and b) survey data of a qualitative nature
from the annual Executive Opinion Survey of the World
Economic Forum. Following, is a brief description of
each of the five categories and the rationale behind
them. Details of the specific variables examined and
their sources may be found in the Appendix.
Using the CalSIM model, we predict changes in coverage
in California as a result of the ACA. Take up of
available coverage options in the model is based on a
wide range of factors, including the pre-policy starting
point, health status, household income, change in cost
to purchase coverage, and English proficiency. For
Medi-Cal, we assume that 61 percent of uninsured
newly eligible individuals, and 10 percent of those who
were previously eligible but not enrolled, enroll under
our base scenario. is assumption is based on current
Medi-Cal take up in the state.
In developing the school travel model, we eliminated the 217 students who live
outside of their school district boundary or are missing variable information, yielding
a sample of 1216 used for model development.We calculated distance to school as the
shortest road network travel distance, using ArcGIS v.9.2. We weighted the travel
survey sample against the Census 2000 population residing in the school district,
accounting for differences in race and income (MetroGIS DataFinder, 2009).
The demand and supply side of the housing markets have been diverging for a while now. New households’
formation indicates a need for new dwellings to the extent of some 233,000 per year
. There is already a
substantial backlog in building homes for individual households.
The need for new dwellings is clear. Supply, demand and the price mechanism do not seem to get the market
moving in the desired direction. The main cause is that the supply is driven by demand, but demand is not
driven by supply but by individual households’ income and home equity levels. The...
Although output growth should be stronger next year, resource slack and
unemployment seem likely to decline only slowly. The prospect of high unemployment
for a long period of time remains a central concern of policy. Not only does high
unemployment, particularly long-term unemployment, impose heavy costs on the
unemployed and their families and on society, but it also poses risks to the sustainability
of the recovery itself through its effects on households’ incomes and confidence.
Maintaining price stability is also a central concern of policy.
Currently, poverty is broadly defined by the lack of public services and
the lack of opportunities to generate income, as well as the inability of
people to act in their own interests, to express their needs through con-
crete proposals, and to organize collectively to implement solutions.
Poverty constitutes a challenge to the peaceful coexistence of people and
represents ignorance of their social, economic, and political rights. How-
ever, creating permanent jobs and implementing productive projects for
poverty reduction are not simple tasks....
Instrumental variables techniques are required to solve the possible endogeneity of household
consumption. The most difficult task is to find a valid instrument for the regression above. The
literature on demand systems typically uses income to instrument consumption. If preferences are
separable between consumption and leisure, total consumption but not income is relevant to decide on
the good shares. However, there are several reasons why household income might not be a valid
The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-59 living in every other household in the CDHS sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Women’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health or nutrition.
An instruction manual was also developed to support standardized data collection. All data collection instruments were pre-tested in June-July, 2010.
Ownership rates across all age groups increased between 1985 and 2003. Again, this is a well-
documented and understood change that has been driven by a number of economic factors,
including, but not limited to, falling interest rates, rising standards of living, public policies
helping low- and middle-income families afford home ownership.
Among the elderly population, the ownership rate for population 85 and over exhibited the
highest increase – i.e., 16 percentage points. Data show that the ownership rate peaks at the
age 62 to 74.
We expect the overall trend of declining household size to persist.
This is supported by an analysis of a panel of 38 countries over
time: by the year 2027 on average 3.8 people will live in a Turkish
household – still significantly more than in west European house-
Furthermore, we have assumed a slowdown in migration as push
and pull factors for moving are weakening.
There are other interesting parallels: In both countries, changes in investment ratios seem not to have
been triggered by changes in household savings ratios, but have shown separate trends: In Germany,
the investment-to-GDP ratio rose from 1951 to 1954 from 20 to 25 per cent, and hovered between
23 and 25 per cent until the late 1960s. The household savings rate, on the other hand, started from a
very low level of just 4 per cent of disposable income in 1950 (which even translates into a lower share
of GDP as disposable income is only a share of GDP) a...
These banking successes should be celebrated. They pave the way for broadening access
to finance for hundreds of millions, perhaps even billions, of low-income people who today lack
ready access to formal financial services. Such access on its own is not yet proven to increase
economic growth or to reduce poverty on a large-scale level—and, as a general proposition, we
doubt that it will on its own.
What have been the impacts of the GGDP-generated maize technologies? In the absence of reliable baseline data, it was not
possible to calculate quantitative measures of project impact. Based on farmers’ qualitative judgments, however, it is clear that
adoption of the GGDP-generated technologies has been associated with significant farm-level productivity gains (measured
in terms of maize yields) and noticeable increases in the income earned from sales of maize. Impacts on the nutritional status
of rural households, however, appear to have been less pronounced.
The official definition of poverty for the U.S. population uses
money income before taxes and does not include capital gains
or noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and SNAP).
The definition is based roughly on historical estimates of the
portion of an average household’s income required to purchase a
“minimally nutritious diet” (about 30% in the early 1960s).
Another key feature of migrant remittances is that the flows of money sent are not necessarily related
to the level of development in the receiving country. They are rather related to: (a) the market for foreign
labour; (b) the receiving country’s regional economic position and their relationship to a more
economically salient country; (c) the macroeconomic impact that remittances have on the receiving
country; (d) the distributive effect on those remittance recipient households.
The study also analyses the lending structure which most likely has contributed to the rise in house
prices. Such price rises exceeded the growth in income levels. The FSA contributes these
developments to the deterioration in lending standards, which not only happened in the U.K., but
also in the U.S., Ireland and Spain for instance. Such practices were originated by lenders -to some
extent non-bank lenders- which took mortgage risks on individual households which could be
classified as high risk borrowers.
One way affluent households might respond to a tax increase
is by working less, as they see a smaller return on each hour
of work. Alternatively, since after-tax income would decline,
households might work more to maintain their pre-law-
change levels of consumption.
The research on this question indicates that labor supply,
particularly among men, is unresponsive to tax rates. While
most studies do not focus specifically on affluent households,
the few that do arrive at a similar conclusion.